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Flashcards in Cells and organelles Deck (51)
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31

Function of cytoskeleton

Contribute to mechanical strength, control shape, drive, guide material movement

32

What is the cytosol

Aqueous environment in plasma membrane

33

What is the cytoplasm

Cytosol + organelles

34

Size of nucleus

Largest organelle
3-10um

35

Function of nucleus

Contains packaged genetic material
DNA organized as chromosomes
Chromatin= complex of DNA/histone and non histone proteins which form nucleosome
When cell not dividing, uncondensed chromatin

36

Function of nucleolus

Site of rDNA transcription, assembly site of ribosomes

37

How many membranes does the nuclear envelope have

Double membrane

38

Function of nuclear pores

Allows transport in and out of nucleus

39

Function of SER

Biosynthesis of membrane lipids, steroids
Start of N linked glycosylation, detoxification of xenobiotics

40

Function of RER

Covered in ribosomes, translation, proteins for secretion/insertion into cell membrane
Proteins folded, disulphide bridges
Vesicles bud from RER, sent to golgi

41

Structure of golgi body

4-8 stacks of cisterna, membrane bound channels
Modifies proteins from RER via vesicles
Modifies N linked carbohydrates
Glycosylation of O linked carbohydrates and lipids
Synthesis and package secretory materials
Direct new proteins in vesicles to compartments
Transport membrane lipids around cell
Create lysosomes

42

Structure of secretory vesicles

Bud off form golgi

43

Function of secretory vesicles

Fuse with inner surface of plasma membrane, exocytosis of hormone, neurotransmitters

44

Function of peroxisomes

Detoxification
Oxidation of VLCFA
Contains oxidative enzymes, form H2O2
Contains enzymes that neutralize H2O2, form H2O and O2
Site of phospholipid synthesis

45

Structure of lysosomes

>50 types of hydrolytic enzymes for all major macromolecules, low pH needed for acid hydrolysis
Involved in organelle turnover/autophagy
Uses ATP to pump H+ into lysosome

46

Size of mitochondrion

0.5-2um

47

How to synthesis mitochondrial proteins

Have mitochondrial DNA

48

Function of mitochondria

Oxides sugars and generate ATP in Krebs

49

Structure of mitochondrion

Have double membrane
Cristae increase SA:V
Krebs cycle enzymes/ETC in different parts of the membrane structure

50

Size of a lysosome

0.2-0.5um

51

Size of peroxisome

0.2-0.5um