Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Cancer Flashcards Preview

Week 4: Breast Mass > Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Cancer Deck (19)
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1

3 characteristics of cancer at the cellular level

Excessive cellular proliferation
Uncontrolled growth
Tissue infiltration

2

2 things that happen during G1

The cell increases in size
Synthesis of new proteins and organelles

3

What happens in G2

Organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced

4

3 factors that put cell into G0

Cell-cell contact
Cell differentiation
Anti-mitogenic factors

5

3 factors that bring cell out of G0

Mitogens
Growth factors
Nutrients

6

What happens beyond the restriction point

Growth factors and mitogens are not needed

7

4 hallmarks of cancer

Genomic instability
Inappropriate cell proliferation, evasion of cell death
Angiogenesis
Invasion and metastasis

8

RB gene

A TSG
Inactivation of RB leads to progression through the restriction point in cell cycle
Inactivation of both copes of RB leads to retinoblastoma

9

p53

A TSG
Most commonly mutated gene in cancer
When it is functional, can can encourage the cell to become quiescent or can induce apoptosis
When it is not functional, cells can evade cell death

10

BRCA 1 or 2 gene

TSGs
Intact, these genes code for proteins that allow for DNA repair using homologous recombination
When absent, the cell can't repair DNA as well as it used to

11

Does RB need to be hypo or hyperphosphorylated to allow for gene transcription?

Hyper
Cyclin D and CDK4/4 promote the cell progression by phosphorylating it

12

How do cancer cells avoid attack of the immune system?

They have the PD1 ligand on them, so immune system cells recognize them as self

13

What are 2 general types of tissues that are more prone to neoplasm?

Proliferating tissues/tissues that are more undifferentiated (skin, lung, gut)
Hormonally regulated tissues (breast, prostate)

14

At what size to tumors start to recruit new blood vessels?

Over 2 mm

15

2 positive regulators of angiogenesis

Vascular endothelial growth factor (regulated by ras)
Basic fibroblastic growth factor

16

A negative regulator of angiogenesis

Thrombospondin-1

17

2 major subtypes of cell adhesion molecules

Integrins (regulate proliferation and apoptosis)
Cadherins (mediate cell-cell interactions)

18

2 implications of tumor cell heterogeneity

Different biological traits (invasiveness or metastasizing potential)
Resistance to drugs or radiation

19

What is the number of cells for
1. Limit of clinical detection
2. Cell death

1. 10^9 (1cm)
2. 10^12