Epithelial tissue and the Mammary Gland Flashcards Preview

Week 4: Breast Mass > Epithelial tissue and the Mammary Gland > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epithelial tissue and the Mammary Gland Deck (33)
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1

3 ways epithelial tissue differs from other basic tissues

1. Closely adhering with little ECM
2. Avascular
3. High mitotic index

2

4 functions of epithelial tissue

Protection
Transport
Absorption
Synthesis and secretion

3

2 criteria to classify epithelia

How many layers of cells?
What is the shape of the cell on the apical surface?

4

Where do you find simple
1. squamous
2. cuboidal
3. columnar

1. blood vessels and body cavities
2. collecting ducts of kidneys
3. gallbladder

5

Where do you find stratified
1. squamous non-keratinized
2. squamous keratinized
3. cuboidal
4. columnar

1. upper and lower GI (ex: epiglottis)
2. thin and thick skin
3. large ducts (sweat and esophageal glands)
4. points of transition (epiglottis, recto-anal junction)

6

Pseudostratified epithelium

Single layer with nuclei at different heights
Upper respiratory tract (like auditory tube)

7

Transitional epithelium

Multilayered
Appearance changes with physiological state
Bladder
When empty (contracted), there are 5-7 layers, round umbrella cells
When full (distended) there are 2-3 layers, flat umbrella cells

8

What does the basement membrane stain best with?

Periodic acid-Schiff stain

9

4 groups of proteins in the basement membrane

Glycoproteins
Linker proteins
Collagens
Proteoglycans

10

Basement membrane vs basal lamina

BM: what you see under light microscope
BL: what you see under EM

11

3 functions of basement membrane

Attach epithelium to CT
Selective barrier
Controls epithelial cell differentiation in growth and tissue repair

12

2 types of tissues in glands

Parenchyma (epithelial tissue that forms the functional unit of glands - secretory cells and ducts)
Stroma (CT that forms the supportive unit of glands)

13

Fetal stage in mammary gland development

Milk line develops from axilla to groin, followed by regression except in pectoral region
15-25 cords invade stroma
Rudimentary duct system present at birth

14

Puberty stage in mammary gland development

Period of rapid growth
Due to establishment of ovarian cycle and increased level of estrogen and progesterone
Main ducts elongate, branch and end in terminal end buds
Gland size increases largely due to deposition of adipose tissue

15

Adult/resting stage in mammary gland development

Compounding development occurs with each ovarian cycle until about 35 yo
Ducts elongate and branch with 2 layers of cells
Terminal ducts form clusters called lobules

16

2 layers of cells in the terminal end buds

Cuboidal epithelial inner layer
Myoepithelial outer layer

17

Pregnancy/lactation stage in mammary gland development

Estrogen/progesterone/prolactin transform breast into mature organ with further ductal branching and alveolar morphogenesis
2 cell types
Lactation begins 48-72 hours after birth due to decrease in progesterone and increase in prolactin

18

Post lactational involution

Weaning stimulates alveolar apoptosis and involution back to resting state

19

Post menopausal involution

Cessation of ovarian cycle leads to a further drop in ovarian hormones, a greater loss of glandular tissue, and an increase in adipose tissue

20

Carcinoma

Cancer of the epithelium

21

Metaplasia

Replacement of one epithelium with another that is normal in appearance
Cells can reverse to other type with the removal of the stress

22

Dysplasia

Same epithelium but cells look different and epithelium is disorderly

23

3 cell types in respiratory epithelium

Stem cells
Goblet cells
Tall columnar ciliated cells

24

How do you describe the shape of ducts in glands?

Simple (no branches)
Compound (branched)

25

How do you describe the shape of secretory portions in glands?

Tubular
Acinar
Tubuloacinar

26

Merocrine glands

Use exocytosis
Ex: salivary gland, pancreas, mammary gland protein secretion

27

Apocrine glands

Release of a small portion of the apical cytoplasm
Ex: mammary gland lipid secretion

28

Holocrine glands

Disintegration of cell and release of product
Ex: sebaceous glands

29

Serous demilune

Moon shaped cap of serous cells on some mucous acini

30

4 stages of breast cancer progression

Normal
Atypical ductal hyperplasia
Ductal carcinoma in situ
Invasive ductal carcinoma