Principles of Cancer Detection and Management Flashcards Preview

Week 4: Breast Mass > Principles of Cancer Detection and Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of Cancer Detection and Management Deck (18)
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1

Screening may involve (4 things)

Imaging
Lab tests
Procedures
Physical examination

2

2 main requirements for a cancer screening test

Preclinical stage of the cancer must be detectable and have a long history
Evidence that early detection improves outcomes through effective treatment

3

Sensitivity

What proportion of the cancers are detected with my test?
True positives/total cases with cancer
The total includes people with cancer who didnt screen positive

4

Specificity

What proportion with a negative test DON'T have cancer?
True negative/total negative

5

Positive predictive value

What proportions of positive cases have cancer?
Positive cases with cancer/total positive cases
Just looking at the people who screen positive
Depends on the prevalence of cancer in the population

6

3 strategies to make screening worthwhile

Select accurate tests
Test in populations with high prevalence
Dont test in populations with short life expectancy

7

3 cons of screening

Exposing people to the risk of the further testing and anxiety
Overdiagnosis
Financial costs

8

ctDNA

Circulating tumor DNA
Shed into the bloodstream by tumors
Potential screening tool

9

Before treatment, you want to confirm cancer with what?

A tissue diagnosis!

10

TNM system to stage solid cancers

T: primary tumor characteristics (size and depth)
N: nodal status (involved or not, number, size)
M: metastasis (present or absent, extent)

11

Why is lymph node involvement significant?

Indicates potential widespread disease despite normal staging investigations
Used to determine the need for additional post-op treatment

12

Palliative intent

Means that the treatment is not being given with curative intent

13

3 types of treatment for cancer

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Systemic therapy

14

Radiotherapy

Damages DNA in tumor and normal cells
But there are better repair mechanisms in normal cells so it differentially kills tumor cells

15

3 types of systemic therapy

Chemotherapy (kills rapidly dividing cells)
Targeted therapy (disruption of tumor cell proliferation and/or survival factors
Immunotherapy (marking tumor cells for destruction, or removing signals that are suppressing the immune response)

16

Adjuvant treatment

Given after the primary therapy (usually surgery) to maximize effectiveness
Aim is to eradicate undetected microscopic disease

17

Neoadjuvant treatmetn

Treatment given prior to the primary therapy (usually surgery)
Shrinks the tumor to allow safe removal

18

Side effects from radiotherapy

Local effects
Skin irritation, organ hypofunction