Cancer and Dysplasia Flashcards Preview

Week 4: Breast Mass > Cancer and Dysplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer and Dysplasia Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

3 ways cells can be put under stress

Increased demand/stimulation
Decreased nutrients/stimulation
Chronic irritation

2

Hypertrophy

Increase in SIZE of cells
Leads to an increase in size of organ or tissue

3

Hyperplasia

Increase in NUMBER of cells
Leads to an increase in size of organ or tissue

4

Atrophy

Reduction in cell size and number
Leads to a decrease in size or organ or tissue

5

Metaplasia

One cell type is replaced by another cell type
Reversible
Adaptive substitution
Usually in response to chronic irritation

6

Necrosis

Mechanism of cell death in response to cell injury
Cellular membrane breaks down and releases enzymes, etc into surrounding tissue
Causes inflammation

7

Apoptosis

Mechanism by which the body regulates cell growth and destroys unwanted cells
Not necessarily associated with cell injury
Cell membrane remains intact
Minimal disruption to surrounding tissue

8

What happens if the gene bcl-2 is upregulated?

Apoptosis is reduced and tumor growth is promoted

9

What happens if the gene bax is upregulated?

Apoptosis is promoted and cancer growth is slowed

10

Definition of a tumor

Swelling or lump
Can be benign or malignant

11

Neoplasm definition

Abnormal mass of tissue
Growth exceeds normal tissue
Persists in the same manner after the cessation of stimuli that evoked change
Benign or malignant

12

Cancer

Malignant neoplasm or tumour

13

Carcinoma

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin

14

Dysplasia

Premalignant condition
Early forms may be reversible
Will often progress to invasive neoplasm if not treated
Will see increased cell growth, atypical cellular changes, and altered cellular differentiation

15

3 cellular changes in dysplasia

Variation in nuclear size and shape
Darkly staining nuclei
Loss of normal orientation

16

Benign neoplasm characteristics (8)

Slow growing
Clear borders
Does NOT infiltrate adjacent tissues
Does not metastasize
Histologically resembles tissue of origin
Good prognosis
Can be cured by surgical removal
Can be a precursor for malignant neoplasms

17

Malignant neoplasm characteristics (7)

Grow rapidly
Poorly circumscribed
Infiltrates and destroys adjacent tissues
Metastasizes
Histologically may poorly resemble tissue of origin
Often fatal
Surgically cured only in the early stages

18

Differentiation

Refers to the extent to which the cells of a neoplasm resemble normal cells both morphologically and functionally
Can be well, moderately, or poorly differentiated

19

Staging of cancers is based on (3)

Size of primary neoplasm
Extent of spread to regional nodes
Presence or absence of distal metastases