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Flashcards in Cellular Energy Deck (24):
1

What is Gibbs free energy?

difference in energy between subtrates and products

2

energy is in what two forms?

heat and randomness

3

List chemical interactions from weakest to strongest

van der wals-> H bonds-> ionic bonds-> covalent

4

all energy from our planet comes from what two sources?

sun and geothermal

5

products of glycolysis? where does it take place? aerobic or anaerobic?

for every glucose molecule, 2ATP, 2NADH and 2Pyruvate. takes place in cyotplasm and is anaerobic.

6

biggest inhibition (regulation) of glycolysis pathway occurs at what step? what regulates it?

fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. ATP regulates this, if theres an increase in ATP glycolysis stops allosteric regulation.

7

what two organelles in our body use O2?

mitochondria and peroxizomes.

8

What do mitochondria do in terms of beta oxidation?

break down short chain (20C or less) FA to FADH2, NADH and acetyl coA.

9

What do peroxizomes do in terms of beta oxidation?

break down long chain FA to short chain (12-14C) and makes acetly coA which then goes to the mito to be finally catobolized.

10

we make fats how many C's at a time?

2C

11

Electron transport system occurs where? F1 complex is what kind of pump? What is the pathway of energy in this system? aerobic or anaerobic?

inner membrane of mito
ATP-proton pump.
Chemical (in electron form)-> stored kinetic->mechianical->back to chemical (via turbine)
aerobic

12

which tissue has the highest E use in the body?

Retina

13

Glucose-6-phosphate broken down from glycogen can go to where?

muscle/brain, liver or pentose phosphate pathway (creates ribose and NADPH which neturalizes free radicals)

14

Pentose Phosphate Pathway had the highest activity where?

in the eyes, many free radicals in eyes due to UV light.

15

Which areas are fed by aqeous humor? what does this mean?

posterior cornea, lens, trabecular meshwork. therefore all are anaerobic because aqeous humor has very little oxygen (therefore less chance of free radicals).

16

two major circulatory systems in the retina are?

coroidal: feeds the highest E portion of retina, highest blood flow
Retinal: normal blood flow

17

the most anaerobic tissue in the body is?

lens

18

majority of energy sources go to what pathway?

glycolysis

19

does any tissue make free radicals?

macrophages make them to kill bacteria when engulfed.

20

what vitamin is highest in aqeous humor?

Ascorbic acid

21

Sorbitol builds up in which disease? causes what? therefore causes what to the lens?

diabetes. causes swelling therefore lens becomes more curved increasing dioptic power therefore myopic shift focusing light closer.

22

Peroxide is what?

a free radical

23

the highest concentration of unsaturated lipids in the body are where? therefore forms the most what?

Retina
free radicals

24

Cones and rods are constantly regrowing how are the old ones removed? since outer segments are renewed of retina, are the inner segments?

eaten up by RPE cells.
NO