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Flashcards in Blood Deck (29)

Blood is what type of tissue?

connective tissue


How does the blood regulate body temperature?

through vasomotor techniques


What two compartments make up the extracellular matrix? What layers separates these two compartments?

plasma (3.5L) and interstitial fluid (10.5L)
endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)


What separates the extracellular compartment from the intracellular compartment?

bilayer membrane


Blood is made up of what two components?
What is the largest compartment made up of? the smaller compartment?

plasma (55%) and cells (formed elements, 45%)
plasma: 90% water, 9% protein (fibrogens, albumen and globulins) and 1% solutes (ions)
cells: RBC, WBC and platelets.


What is unique about platelets?

they are NOT cells, they are small tiny portions of cells.


What are the two major groups of leukocytes?

Agranulocytes (contain very small granules but can't be seen at light level therefore appears to have none)
Granuocytes (larger granules, can be seen at light level)


What cells are considered agranulocytes? name one characterizing thing about each for identification.

1. lymphocytes (smallest WBC, takes up entire cell)
2. Monocytes (largest WBC, nucleus takes up half of cell)


What cells are considered granulocytes? name one characterizing thing about each for identification.

1. Neutrophils:multiglobular nucleus, 3-5 lobes
2. Eosinophils: pink stained granules
3. Basophils: purple/dark blue stained granules, can barely see nucleus because granules are so dark.


What are the three compartments when taking a hematocrit? What are the normal hematocrit values? what if it is lower?

packed RBC (which is what we get the hematocrit value from since it is the amount of RBC per total amount of tissue), buffy coat (makes up 1%, made up of WBC and platelets) and the rest is plasma.
the normal hematocrit values are 35-55%
if lower, considered anemic.


what needs to be present in order for the three layers found when taking a hematocrit?

anticoagulant. when this is absent, we get fibrinogens clotting blood cells which brings all the RBC to the bottom and serum is left on top which is everything else.


the three proteins present in blood plasma are?

fibrinogens (largest, synthesized in liver, normally soluble but when a wound occurs, it becomes insoluble and forms clots)
albumins: smallest, prevents excessive movement of fluid from outside to inside
globulins: antibodies


Size of RBC? do they have organelles? What is the intermediate protein? Where are RBCs made? how long do they last in blood stream?

Spectrin allows for elasticity and is responsible for unique shape.
made in bone and marrow and circulate for 120 days until eaten by a macrophage.


What are the two proteins involved in stabilization of RBCs?

glycophorin: attaches to actin/spectrin and helps stabilize shape of the cell.
band 3: transmembrane protein, has a channel. ankyrin anchors spectrin to band 3.


alterations in the shape of RBCs are due to defects in what? what two types can occur? side affects seen in both are?

cytoskeleton (spectrin)
1. eliptocytosis: abnormal self assocation of SUs, forms oval shape, auto dom.
2. pherocytosis: forms a circular shape, deficiency in spectrin, auto dom.
jaundice, anemia and enlarged spleen (which can be curative).


hemoglobin is made up of four of what structure? defects in these structures can lead to?

2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
hemolysis (distruction of RBC).


Where are platelets derived from? what two cytoskeletal elements are present? what two things do they release and what do they cause?

budding off of megakaryocytes in bone marrow.
microtubules and microfilaments.
serotonin: vasconstriction
thromboplastin: fibrin cot.


characters of megakaryocytes?

largest cells, up to 7 nuclei, fragmentation occurs, multilobed nucleus, extensive cytoplasm.


How many types of granules are in platelets and what are they?

1. alpha granule
2. dense core granule (releases serotonin)
3. peroxisome
4. lysosome.


What is thrombocytopenia?

reduced paltelets, spontaneous bleeding


granulocytes contain what kind of granules? examples? which ones can leave bloodstream in response to a stimulus?

primary and secondary
neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil


Agranulocytes contain what kind of granules? examples? which ones can leave bloodstream in response to a stimulus?

ONLY primary
lymphocyte and monocyte.


Which is the most prevalent WBC? lifespan? are they phagocytic? number one clue for identification?

neutrophils (60-70%)
7 hours
multilobed nucleus


Which are the rarest WBCs? size? number one clue for identification?

basophils, less than 1% of them, around 10um.
dark and many granules, cant even see nucleus usually, stained purple or dark blue.


Which other WBC is phagocytic like the neurophils?



Main function of eosinophils?

parasitic infection


Which agranulocyte is phagocytic? what are they attracted too? examples of types of monocytes? number one clue for identification?

monocyte (pretty rare),
chemotaxis (given off by sites that are infected with bacteria)
langerham cells (skin), osteoclasts (bone).
nucleus takes up half of cell, cant see granules.


Type of agrnaulocyte that is common? main function? What are the two types? number one clue for identification?

immune response, recognizes foreign Abs, T cells (90% or killer cells) and B cells (10%).
large and small (small are way more prevalent).
LARGE nucleus, takes up most of cell.


hemphilia A and B are disorders of what?

platelets (defective clotting factors). in severe cases, blood is incoagulable.