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Flashcards in Systems Histology Deck (27)

What are the four main functions of the renal system?

1. elimination of wastes
2. regulation of water balance
3. filter/cleanse blood
4. regulate chemical composition of blood


renal pyramids are made up of what parts?

renal cortex: which contains filtration units (glomeruli) and drains filtrate into second part of pyramid (medulla) which drains into renal papilla (third part of renal pyramid) then minor caylx then major caylx then into ureter (which takes urine to bladder, urine then leaves body through urethra).


blood enters the kidney through which artery?

renal artery which further branches into interlobar arteries which feeds into interlobular arteries which go to afferent arterioles and supply glomeruli (in renal pyramids)


what surrounds the kidneys?

renal capsule (made up of collagenous connective tissue)


the capillaries in the kidneys are what type?



the capillary tuft or glomeruli is located between what?

afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole therefore it is a portal system. (capillary between two arterioles)


what type of tissue surrounds the outer layer of bowmans capsule? once inner layer is formed what cells surround this inner layer?

simple squamous epithelium.


what is the functional unit of the kidneys?



in the glomerulus, it receives blood from? blood leaves by? filtration occurs where?

receives from afferent arterioles
leaves by efferent
filtration occurs in bowmans capsule


the macula dense of the distal tubule contains what kind of tissue surrounding it?

cuboid/columnar cells which are sensors for salt regulation


what cells form inner bowmans space (or urinary space)? outer bowmans?

simple squamous epithelium.


in the juxtaglomerular complex (next to glomerulus) we have what type of cells?

juxtaglomerular cells (located in wall of afferent arteriole, modified smooth muscle cells, sense blood pressure, regulates relases of renin, low BP release of renin)
extra (between macula densa and afferent/efferent arterioles) and intraglomerular cells act as macrophages also secrete signal molecules and the intras (in bowmans) synthesize matrix.


proximal convoluted tubule is closest to which pole? what type of cells line the tubule at the beginning, just leaving bowmans?

simple cuboid (extensive microvilli at apical)


the thin part of ascending loop has what type of tissue? as it ascends and becomes thicker?

simple squamous
larger cuboid but NOT any microvilli (like the proximal convoluted tubule)


macula densa is part of which tubule?

distal tubule


podicytes located where? they wrap around? what do the feet form?

bowmans capsule (inner layer) end feet wrap around capillaries. filtration slits.


collecting duct has what type of cells lining it?

same as all other ducts, starts as small (centraacinar-> simple squamous-> cuboid->columnar->stratified cuboid/columnar)


what type of tissue does the bladder have?

transitional epithelium (therefore found in both ureter and urethra)


nasal mucosa has what type of tissue?

pseudostratified columnar ciliated.


conducting zone (NO GAS EXCHANGE HERE) is made up of what?

trachea (has rings of hyaline cartilage), bronchial tree, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles


respiratory zone is made up of?

respiratory bronchioles-> alveolar sacs (gas exchange takes place here)


what are the four layers of the trachea?

1. mucosa (pseudostratified columnar ciliated)
2. submucosa (dense CT with glands)
3. Cartilage (hyaline, smooth muscle on rings for contraction)
4. adventia (loose CT)


what three unique things are found in the mucosa layer of trachea?

microvilli at apical, cilia, and goblet cells.


terminal bronchioles have what type of tissue? what type of cells which do what?

simple cuboidal
clara cells which synthesize and secrete surfactant, dome shaped, non ciliated


alveolus has what three types of cells?

type 1 pneumocyte: thin squamous, 95%
type 11 pneumocyte: cuboid, 5% secretes surfactant which reduces surface tension
dust cells: acts as macros


alveoli are right next to capillaries (they are embedded in alveolus) and thus the two basement membranes fuse, what two cell layers are these? what moves out across the fused BMs? moves in?

endothelium of capillary and simple squamous of aveolar.
CO2 moving in, O2 out into RBC (binds to Hb)


emphysema, 90% is due to? what is the problem with this disease?

90% due to smoking.
loss of elasticity of tissues, enlargement of alveolar air spaces, no problem getting O2 into lungs but has trouble getting O2 out of alveolus into RBCs.