Flashcards in Liver and Gallbladder Deck (32):
what is the main cell type in the liver (2nd largest organ in body)?
hepatocytes (arranged in lobules)
portal triad is made up of what and is located where in hepatocytes?
bile ductule, portal vein and hepatic artery. all three are located at each apex of the lobule (hexagonal shape)
which way does blood flow in hepatocytes? bile?
blood flows from periphery to center where as bile flows center to periphery
hepatic artery in portal triad combines with blood from what?
portal vein (also in portal triad)
capillaries in hepatocytes are of what type?
central vein is located where in hepatocyte? what does it drain to?
center of lobule, drains to sublobular vein
blood supply to the hepatocytes come from what two sources?
80% from portal vein (from intestine, located bw capillary beds of gut and liver, carries nutrients)
20% from hepatic artery (O2 rich)
bile canaliculi are lined with what type of cells? what goes through here?
bile is secreted into these canaliculi and then travel to the periphery in these canaliculi where they are secreted into the bile duct.
hepatocytes can store what?
what lines the sinusoids?
endothelium (simple squamous epithelium, the case for all capillary systems)
what types of cells are located in the sinusoids? what do they act as? what types of cells are in space of disse? what do they store? where is space of disse located?
kupffer cells act as macrophages
Ito cells are fat storing cells
space of disse is space between hepatocytes and sinusoid
around how many mitochondria are present in a hepatocyte?
on the basolateral domain of hepatocyte what do we have? apical domain?
RER in hepatocytes is involved in production of what type of cells? SER?
deoxtification of toxins and drugs (ONLY occurs in liver cells)
the bile canaliculi are delimited by?
bile ducts are lined with what type of epithelium?
simple cuboid epithelium
bile and hepatic ducts are lined with what type of epithelium and become what as they enlarge?
simple cuboid epithelium and become columnar as they enlarge.
what apical specialization structure is present in bile canaliculi?
blood moves through the endothelium into the space of disse which cells are the first to respond? what cells are located more centrally?
perilobular (more toward periphery, they store glycogen)
small arteries are lined by what?
smooth muscle (larger ones lined by collagen and elastic tissue)
what do ITO cells do that have to do with the eye?
involved in retinoid synthesis
sinusoids all feed into what main thing?
what enzyme is present in the liver that oxidizes alcohol?
what are the stages of alcoholism?
1. fatty liver (reversible)
2. steatohepatitis (pathological fatty liver): only difference here is that fatty liver is accompanied by inflammation
3. cirrhosis: collagen proliferation in space of disse therefore blocking nutrient flow to hepatocytes
4. hepatocellular carcinoma (tumors of liver)
name for alcoholic fatty liver?
steatosis: accummulation of fat in hepatocytes
main function of gallbladder?
stores, concentrates and releases bile
what is the sphincter called in the gallbladder that allows opening?
valve of heister
what lines the lumen of gallbladder?
mucosa (columnar cells with microvilli and branching folds)
what is located beneath the mucosa layer of gallbladder?
muscularis (smooth muscle, moves bile to cyctic duct during contraction)
what is located beneath muscularis layer of gallbladder?
adventia or serosa layer: continuous with mesothelium which lines the liver, loose CT
what is the purpose of the microvilli on the mucosa layer in gallbladder?
to absorb the water from the bile to concentrate it before going to duodenum