Cellular Neuroscience-Exam I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular Neuroscience-Exam I Deck (53):
1

How many cells are in the human brain?

170 Billion Cells HOW DO THEY KNOW THIS??

2

What protein structures are used in axoplasmic transport?

MicroTubules and MicroFilaments

3

Which cell structure accounts for over 90% of the cell surface area for synapses?

Dendrites

4

What is a common example of an umyenated axon?

A pain receptor, thank god it takes these signals longer eh?

5

What is an axon branch called?

An axon collateral

6

What part of the axon contains the N.T. vesicles?

The axon terminal

7

What determines the action of a neuron? The N.T. or the Receptor? Example??

The receptor determines the action for the neuron.. Ach excitatory in skeletal muscle, but inhibitory in cardiac muscle

8

Will Negative Ion channels depolarize(excite) or hyperpolarize(inhibit) a neuron?

Hyperpolarize(Inhibit)

9

Will positive ion channels depolarize (excite) or hyper polarize(inhibit) a cell?

Depolarize (Excite)

10

Where am I going to find pseudo unipolar neurons? What makes them UNIQUE?

PNS Sensory Afferents...2 AXONS!!

11

Where am I going to find BiPolar neurons?

Special Sensory. BiPolar people are special :)

12

What is unique about multipolar neurons?

Large Dentritic Trees, perkunjie fibers

13

What type of neuron makes up 99% of ALL NEURONS... wow. Where can I find these bad boys?

Interneurons, making connections between the afferent and efferent neurons, processing...ONLY IN CNS

14

What are two main names for congregations of neuronal cell bodies(gray matter)?

Nuclei and ganglia

15

What are 4 names to describe groups of axons(white matter)? Ready for some crazy new words?!

Tract, Fasciculus, lemniscus...several tracts=funiculus

16

What types of glial cells might be excitable?

AstroCytes

17

What are the main immune-like, and healing functions of Astrocytes?

The Blood Brain Barrier!! and scar formation in CNS

18

What CNS glial cells line cavities?

EP-EN-DY-MAL cells

19

What are the macrophages of the CNS?

MicroGlia

20

What is the function of nonmyleinating schwann cells?

regrowth of motor axons in PNS

21

What part of the PNS neuron does the Satellite cell surround?

The cell body

22

What is an astrocytoma that can spread from one side of the brain to the other using the corpus callosum? PLEASE don't get this wrong!

GlioBlastoma MultiForme

23

What is the normal resting potential range of a neuron?

-70 to -90 mv

24

What are the normal Na and K [Gradients]?

More Na outside cell, more K inside cell (Na/K pump-2 K in 3Na out)

25

At rest which ion is the cell more permeable to Na or K?

K

26

What is happening when a cells membrane potential only moves a little and gets more positive(like from -70mv to -60mv)?

Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (E.P.S.P)!!!

27

What's it called when a cell potential becomes slightly more negative (like -70mv to -80mv)?

Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (I.P.S.P)

28

What is the A.P. threshold?

-55mv

29

What are the two ways a nerve or muscle cell can be excited?

Synaptic Input OR Electrical Stimulation

30

What is the first step after the threshold has been reached? What does the membrane potential reach?

Na channels open. Membrane potential will reach +20mv c/o all the positive Na's coming in

31

What are two factors that open a Na channel?

Time and Voltage

32

What event occurs to REpolarize the cell?

K will rush out naturally (we need to get the Positive charge out!)

33

What do astrocytes in the CNS do to help maintain resting membrane potentials?

They Eat bananas! I mean potassium.

34

What causes Myotonia congenita and spasticity?

Plateau Potentials c/o Calcium enrtry

35

Why is the axon hillock the site of starting the A.P. propagation?

The hillock has the highest density of voltage gated channels

36

What are the two types of A.P. propagation? Hint: has to do with myelin..

Local Current Flow & Saltatory Conduction

37

How fast is a myelinated A.P. in mph? How much faster is that then unmyelinated?

360mph!! 50x faster

38

Which conducts an action potential faster? Larger or smaller axon?

Larger Axons, less RESISTANCE!! I love electricity :)

39

Which is normal conduction? Orthodromic or Antidromic?

Ortho=normal, Anti=not normal, made in a lab

40

What type of sandwich are the synaptic transmission signals?

Signals at the synaptic transmission go from an electrical to a chemical, to an electrical sandwich :)

41

Are synapses in the Soma (axo-somatic) generally E.P.S.P.'s or I.P.S.P.'s? What about ado-dendritic?

axo-somal: IPSP axo-dendritic: EPSP

42

What type of channels open in the axon terminal to later on release N.T.?

Voltage gated Calcium Channels (Ca then flows down [gradient]

43

What are the three main ways to end a synaptic transmission?

Diffusion, Enzyme degredation, or reup

44

What never happens at the synapse of an alpha motor neuron and a motor neuron? What helps a muscle cell relax then?

IPSP.. IPSPs can happen at the dendrite or soma of the alpha motor neuron in the brain (just not at the axon terminal)

45

What term is used for an axo-axonic synapse that aids another axon to release MORE neurotransmitter? What about the same thing but inhibiting?

Presynaptic Facilitation....vs Presynaptic Inhibition

46

What are the 5 classy classes of N.T.'s?

1.MonoAmines 2. Cholinergic 3. Amino Acids 4. NeuroPeptides 5.NonTraditional

47

What are the two classy classes of Receptors? What are their main functions?

Ion-To-Tropic & Metab-O-Tropic (Gprotein)....Iontotopic opens ion channels, metabotropic causes the chain rxn of Gproteins which can be EPSP,IPSP gene signaling YOU NAME IT

48

What are the subcategories of MonoAmines?

1.Cat-E-Chol-Amines: a)Epi, b)NorEpi, c)Dopamine & 2.Seratonin

49

What is an example of a Cho-Lin-Ergic N.T.?

Ace-tyl-cho-line

50

What are three examples of Amino Acid N.T.'s?

a) Gamma-Amino-Butyric-Acid (GABA) b)Glycine c)Glutamate

51

What are 3 examples of Neruo-peptides?

Endorphins, Calcitonin, Substance P

52

What are two examples of nontraditional N.T.'s?

NO, and CO2

53

What are the only two N.T.'s that are not BOTH IontoTropic AND MetaboTropic?

NorEpi & Dopamine