Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex-Exam II Deck (61):
About how many neurons are housed in the cerebral cortex?
10 billion.. how do they know that!? also perspective: 170 billion cells in brain..fyi
What are the six layers of gray matter in the cerebral cortex? (Superficial->Deep)
I. Molecular II. External Granular Layer III. External Pyramidal Layer IV. Internal Granular Layer V. Internal Pyramidal Layer VI. Multiform Layer
Which cells of the cortex are found in layers 3,4,&6 that send info from deep to superficial? Are these cells Radial or Tangential?
Cells of Martinoti...Radial
Which cells of the cortex contact signals from Martinoti cells to Pyramidal Cells? Are they Radial or Tangential?
Which cells carry signals from the superficial to the deep part of the cortex? Radial or Tangential?
What can the cortex be divided into on its smallest level?
What can groups of vertical columns be clustered into? What's an example of this?
Functionally Specialized Areas (Brodmann's Area)
What is the largest categorization of vertical columns-->functionally specialized areas?
What are the three types of fibers that connect lobes/cortices? Where do each of them work?
Association Fibers (within same hemisphere), Commissural Fibers(hemisphere to hemisphere), Projection Fibers(Thalamus to the Cortex)
What are the 5 cell types found in the cerebral cortex?
1. Pyramidal 2. Stellate 3. Fusiform 4. Horizontal Cells of Cajal 5. Cells of Martinoti
What are the five functional areas of the cortex?
1.Primary Sensory Cortices 2. Sensory Association Cortices 3.Motor Planning Cortices 4. Primary Mortor Cortices 5. Association Cotrices
Which gyrus is the Primary Somatosensory Cortex?
Where does the primary somatosensory cortex receive input from?
The thalamus (the great switchboard)
Which gyrus can I find the somatosensory association cortex?
What can a lesion of the somatosensory association cortex cause?
Which 2 gyri will i find the primary Visual Cortex?
Cuneus & Lingual (Occipital-divided by Calcirin Sulcus)
What would result with a lesion to the primary somatosensoy cortex aka "Hemianesthesia"?
Loss of conscious proprioception
What is housed in the angular gyrus?
The visual association cortex
What have I damaged if I cannot converge or diverge my eyes?
The visual association cortex
Where is my primary auditory cortex?
the transverse temporal gyri of Heschl
Where is my auditory association cortex?
Superior Temporal Gyrus
Which cortex and what specific area of that cortex have I injured if i cannot understand spoken language?
The auditory association cortex--Wernike's
What are the four structures of the Primary Olfactory Cortex?
The Uncus, Piriform Cortex, The PeriAmygdaloid, and part of the ParaHippoCampal Gyrus
What is the inability to recognize an object/to interpret and recognize sensory stimuli? THIS IS FOR ALL THE DIFFERENT ASSOCIATION CORTICES
What are the two terms for in ability to sense an object by touch? What Brodmann's number area is this?
Tactile Agnosia aka Astero-Gnosis, lesion in area 40
What is the inability to recognize faces?
What is the inability to recognize objects by sight? What numbered area is this?
Visual Agnosia..Area 39
What is the inability to recognize familiar sounds and words? What area?
Auditory Agnosia...Area 22
Which stream helps see Form, 3-D, Position, Motion?
What happens if you take out my left primary visual cortex?
Lose vision from my right eye
Which stream is for Visual Detail and Color
What is a negative sign?
Complete loss of function..eg Paralysis of something
What is a positive sign?
Abnormal function of something...hallucination
Describe to me the flow of information and the functional areas...
Primary Sensory Cortex-->Sensory Association Cortex-->Association Cortex-->Motor Planning Areas-->Primary motor cortex
What is the scientific term for loss of the PRIMARY visual cortex? Are you ready for some crazy words?
What is the flow of signals if I want to replicate a sound? Pretty cool! Really only one new area we haven't talked about much..
Sound comes in the primary auditory cortex-->goes to the auditory association cortex-->then to wernicke's area-->then to the subcortical connections-->then to broca's area-->oral and throat region of the sensorimotor cortex
Which cortex have I damaged if I cannot LOCALIZE a sound?
Primary Auditory Cortex
Where might a lesion be with a positive babinski sign?
The Primary Motor Cortex
Which two cortices house the main motor planning area?
The PreMotor Cortex/Frontal Eye Fields & Supplemental Motor cortex
What structures are involved with INTERNALLY motivated movements? Like to get up, walk, etc.
The Basal Ganglia (then sent to the motor planning areas)
What structures are involved with Externally motivated movements? How does this relate to parkinsons?
The cerebellum and the premotor cortex. If you give external motivation for a parkinsons pt to move, like through music or commands they have an easier time moving. (rather then the basal ganglia telling them to move)
What is the term for normal comprehension of language, but difficult expression of speech?
Broca's Aphasia (expressive aphasia)
What is the general term for the inability to plan perform skilled movements?
What is the loss of ability to carry out spontaneous movement?
What is the inability to carryout a command due to inability to remember the command?
What is the inability to perform complicated motor tasks?
What is the inability to demonstrate the use of objects
ID-ation-al apraxia (I think they made that word up)
What is the inability to perform facial-oral movements on command?
What is the most common apraxia?
What are the three Association Cortices?
1. Prefrontal/Frontal 2. Limbic 3. Parietotemporal
What are the three parts of Prefrontal/Frontal association cortex?
Superior, middle frontal gyri, and medial frontal lobe
What is the function for ALL planned activities in the frontal lobe?
What areas regulate the AFFECT associated with sensation (happy, sad, friendly etc)?
Frontal/Prefrontal Asscoication Cortices
Where is the limbic association cortex?
anterior pole of the temporal lobe
Which association cortex is involved in regulation of emotions, mood, affect, & memory?
The limbic association cortex
Which association cortex is involved in sensory integration, problem solving, speech, and spatial processing?
ParietoTemporal Association Cortex
Which association cortex is linked to the hemineglect syndrome? Remember the clock on the wall?
The ParietoTemporal Association Cortex
Which hemisphere is considered the dominant hemisphere in most individuals?
The Left Hemisphere
What % of the population is Right Handed? What % of Right handed people are left brain dominant? What % of Left handed people are left brain dominant?
90% of people are right handed. 90% of right handers are left brain dominant. 60-70% of wrong handers are left brain dominant as well
Categorize these as dominant or noncom fxns: Spatial Oritentation? Arithmic-Analytical? Language? Prosody?
Spatial Orientation:NONdom Arithmic-Analytical: DOM Language: DOM Prosody: Non-Dom