Cerebral Cortex-Exam II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex-Exam II Deck (61):
1

About how many neurons are housed in the cerebral cortex?

10 billion.. how do they know that!? also perspective: 170 billion cells in brain..fyi

2

What are the six layers of gray matter in the cerebral cortex? (Superficial->Deep)

I. Molecular II. External Granular Layer III. External Pyramidal Layer IV. Internal Granular Layer V. Internal Pyramidal Layer VI. Multiform Layer

3

Which cells of the cortex are found in layers 3,4,&6 that send info from deep to superficial? Are these cells Radial or Tangential?

Cells of Martinoti...Radial

4

Which cells of the cortex contact signals from Martinoti cells to Pyramidal Cells? Are they Radial or Tangential?

Horizontal Cells...Tangential

5

Which cells carry signals from the superficial to the deep part of the cortex? Radial or Tangential?

Pyramidal Cells...Radial

6

What can the cortex be divided into on its smallest level?

Vertical Columns

7

What can groups of vertical columns be clustered into? What's an example of this?

Functionally Specialized Areas (Brodmann's Area)

8

What is the largest categorization of vertical columns-->functionally specialized areas?

Lobes/Cortices

9

What are the three types of fibers that connect lobes/cortices? Where do each of them work?

Association Fibers (within same hemisphere), Commissural Fibers(hemisphere to hemisphere), Projection Fibers(Thalamus to the Cortex)

10

What are the 5 cell types found in the cerebral cortex?

1. Pyramidal 2. Stellate 3. Fusiform 4. Horizontal Cells of Cajal 5. Cells of Martinoti

11

What are the five functional areas of the cortex?

1.Primary Sensory Cortices 2. Sensory Association Cortices 3.Motor Planning Cortices 4. Primary Mortor Cortices 5. Association Cotrices

12

Which gyrus is the Primary Somatosensory Cortex?

POSTcentral Gyrus

13

Where does the primary somatosensory cortex receive input from?

The thalamus (the great switchboard)

14

Which gyrus can I find the somatosensory association cortex?

SupraMarginal Gyrus

15

What can a lesion of the somatosensory association cortex cause?

ASTERO-GNO-SIS

16

Which 2 gyri will i find the primary Visual Cortex?

Cuneus & Lingual (Occipital-divided by Calcirin Sulcus)

17

What would result with a lesion to the primary somatosensoy cortex aka "Hemianesthesia"?

Loss of conscious proprioception

18

What is housed in the angular gyrus?

The visual association cortex

19

What have I damaged if I cannot converge or diverge my eyes?

The visual association cortex

20

Where is my primary auditory cortex?

the transverse temporal gyri of Heschl

21

Where is my auditory association cortex?

Superior Temporal Gyrus

22

Which cortex and what specific area of that cortex have I injured if i cannot understand spoken language?

The auditory association cortex--Wernike's

23

What are the four structures of the Primary Olfactory Cortex?

The Uncus, Piriform Cortex, The PeriAmygdaloid, and part of the ParaHippoCampal Gyrus

24

What is the inability to recognize an object/to interpret and recognize sensory stimuli? THIS IS FOR ALL THE DIFFERENT ASSOCIATION CORTICES

AG-NOS-IA

25

What are the two terms for in ability to sense an object by touch? What Brodmann's number area is this?

Tactile Agnosia aka Astero-Gnosis, lesion in area 40

26

What is the inability to recognize faces?

PRO-SO-PAG-NO-SIA

27

What is the inability to recognize objects by sight? What numbered area is this?

Visual Agnosia..Area 39

28

What is the inability to recognize familiar sounds and words? What area?

Auditory Agnosia...Area 22

29

Which stream helps see Form, 3-D, Position, Motion?

Parietal Stream

30

What happens if you take out my left primary visual cortex?

Lose vision from my right eye

31

Which stream is for Visual Detail and Color

Temporal Stream

32

What is a negative sign?

Complete loss of function..eg Paralysis of something

33

What is a positive sign?

Abnormal function of something...hallucination

34

Describe to me the flow of information and the functional areas...

Primary Sensory Cortex-->Sensory Association Cortex-->Association Cortex-->Motor Planning Areas-->Primary motor cortex

35

What is the scientific term for loss of the PRIMARY visual cortex? Are you ready for some crazy words?

HOMO-NY-MOUS HEMI-ANO-PIA

36

What is the flow of signals if I want to replicate a sound? Pretty cool! Really only one new area we haven't talked about much..

Sound comes in the primary auditory cortex-->goes to the auditory association cortex-->then to wernicke's area-->then to the subcortical connections-->then to broca's area-->oral and throat region of the sensorimotor cortex

37

Which cortex have I damaged if I cannot LOCALIZE a sound?

Primary Auditory Cortex

38

Where might a lesion be with a positive babinski sign?

The Primary Motor Cortex

39

Which two cortices house the main motor planning area?

The PreMotor Cortex/Frontal Eye Fields & Supplemental Motor cortex

40

What structures are involved with INTERNALLY motivated movements? Like to get up, walk, etc.

The Basal Ganglia (then sent to the motor planning areas)

41

What structures are involved with Externally motivated movements? How does this relate to parkinsons?

The cerebellum and the premotor cortex. If you give external motivation for a parkinsons pt to move, like through music or commands they have an easier time moving. (rather then the basal ganglia telling them to move)

42

What is the term for normal comprehension of language, but difficult expression of speech?

Broca's Aphasia (expressive aphasia)

43

What is the general term for the inability to plan perform skilled movements?

A-Prax-ia

44

What is the loss of ability to carry out spontaneous movement?

A-Kinetic apraxia

45

What is the inability to carryout a command due to inability to remember the command?

Amnestic Apraxia

46

What is the inability to perform complicated motor tasks?

Motor Apraxia

47

What is the inability to demonstrate the use of objects

ID-ation-al apraxia (I think they made that word up)

48

What is the inability to perform facial-oral movements on command?

Facial Apraxia

49

What is the most common apraxia?

Facial Apraxia

50

What are the three Association Cortices?

1. Prefrontal/Frontal 2. Limbic 3. Parietotemporal

51

What are the three parts of Prefrontal/Frontal association cortex?

Superior, middle frontal gyri, and medial frontal lobe

52

What is the function for ALL planned activities in the frontal lobe?

Executive Functiony

53

What areas regulate the AFFECT associated with sensation (happy, sad, friendly etc)?

Frontal/Prefrontal Asscoication Cortices

54

Where is the limbic association cortex?

anterior pole of the temporal lobe

55

Which association cortex is involved in regulation of emotions, mood, affect, & memory?

The limbic association cortex

56

Which association cortex is involved in sensory integration, problem solving, speech, and spatial processing?

ParietoTemporal Association Cortex

57

Which association cortex is linked to the hemineglect syndrome? Remember the clock on the wall?

The ParietoTemporal Association Cortex

58

Which hemisphere is considered the dominant hemisphere in most individuals?

The Left Hemisphere

59

What % of the population is Right Handed? What % of Right handed people are left brain dominant? What % of Left handed people are left brain dominant?

90% of people are right handed. 90% of right handers are left brain dominant. 60-70% of wrong handers are left brain dominant as well

60

Categorize these as dominant or noncom fxns: Spatial Oritentation? Arithmic-Analytical? Language? Prosody?

Spatial Orientation:NONdom Arithmic-Analytical: DOM Language: DOM Prosody: Non-Dom

61

Categorize as dom or non dom...Skilled motor formulation? Analytic-Spatial Seuential Processing? Visual Spatial Analysis?

Skilled Motor: Dom....Analytic-Spatial: NON-dom...Sequential Processing: DOM....Visual Spatial Analysis:Non-Dom