Flashcards in Development-Exam I Deck (25):
What are the five stages of neuro development?
1. Neurulation 2. Proliferation 3. Migration 4.Differentiation/Elongation 5. Refinement
About when does the ectoderm form? What structures does it form?
16 days, THE CNS, adrenal medulla, and skin
What forms out of the endoderm?
What forms out of the mesoderm?
heart, circulatory system, muscle, bone, meninges, somites, notochord
What thickens to from the neural plate?
When should the rostral portion of the neural tube close? Caudal?
Rostral: 27 days, Caudal: 30
What will arise out of the neural crest?
PNS and Adrenal Medulla
What are the 3 primary vesicles of the CNS once the neural tube has closed?
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
What are the five subdivisions of the developing brain? What adult structure arises out of each? BOOM! GO!
1. Telencephalon-Cerebral Hemisphere, Basal Ganglia, Hippocampus 2. Diencephalon-Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pineal Body 3. Mesencephalon-Midbrain,Peduncles 4. Metencephalon-Pons, Cerebellum 5. Myelencephalon-medulla oblongata
What is the failure of the neural tube to close on the rostral end?
What are the three types of spina bifida?
1.Spina Bifida Oculta 2. Meningocele 3. Myelomeningocele
What happens in Arnold-Chiari Malformation?
Part of the cerebellum and caudal brainstem herniate through the foramen magnum which obstructs flow of CSF
What are the three layers of the neural tube? (From Inside to Outside)
1.Germinal(Ventricular) 2. Intermediate Zone 3. Marginal Zone(Cortical Zone)
What are the newly divided cells in the germal layer?
Neuroblasts & Glioblasts
How do neuroblasts migrate out of the germinal zone?
They use glioblasts to help them leave
What is the difference between radial and tangential migration?
Radial migration: straight up and down. Tangential: tarzan, side to side
For development of the spinal cord: what is the dividing line for dorsal and ventral neurons?
The Sulcus Limitans...Its limiting, get it?!
What is the name of the plate for the dorsal portion of the developing spinal cord? What type of cells are here? PLEASE don't get this wrong..
Dorsal=Alar Plate, Sensory neurons (dorsal root=sensory!!)
What is the name of the plate for the ventral portion of the developing spinal cord? What type of neurons are here?
Ventral=Basal Plate, motor neurons
After the neuron has migrated, what part of the axon will start to elongate? What does it use to "crawl"?(Hint: should have been named "hand")
The distal end of the axon starts to crawl with the "growth cone"
What is the axon growth cone comprised of?
Filapodia and Lamellipodia
What are the four methods an elongating axon finds its way?
Contact Repulsion, Chemo Repulsion, Contact Attraction, Chemo Attraction
What is the last step in axon elongation? (ITS freaking important)
What is the main concept of maturation? Why does Dr. Lynsky say its unfair?
The body makes more axons & synapses then it needs, then prunes them back. Unfair to those poor axons who traveled far just to die :(