Cellular Respiration Vocab Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular Respiration Vocab Quiz Deck (21):
1

Acetyle Coenzyme A, the entry com pound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a 2 carbon fragment of pyruvate3 attached to a coenzyme

Acetyl CoA

2

A catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using Oxygen as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms.

Aerobic Respiration

3

Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide

Alcohol Fermentation

4

An iron containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells

Cytochrome

5

A complex of several membrane proteins that functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases are found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membranes of prokaryotes

ATP Synthase

6

The catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP

Cellular respiration

7

An energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis

Chemiosmosis

8

A chemical cycle involving eight steps that complete the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyle COA to CO2; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; together with pyruvate oxidation, the second major stage in cellular respiration

Citric Acid Cycle

9

A sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP

Electron transport chain

10

AN organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present

Facultative anaerobe

11

kA catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid

Fermentation

12

A series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis occurs in almost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration

Glycolysis

13

Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ with no release of carbon dioxide

lactic acid fermentation

14

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that cycles easily bw oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH) states, thus acting as an electron carrier

NAD+

15

The complete or partial loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction

Oxidation

16

The production of ATP using energy from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain, the third major stage of cellular respiration

Oxidative phosphorylation

17

AN organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen and might be poisoned by it

Obligate anaerobe

18

The potential energy stored in the form of a proton electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis

proton-motive force

19

A chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another, short form REDuction-OXidation reaction

redox reaction

20

The complete or partial addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction

Reduction

21

The enzyme catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism

substrate level phosphorylation