Vocab test 9/20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab test 9/20 Deck (54):
1

a negatively charged ion

anion

2

The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element

atom

3

an atoms dense central core, containing protons and neutrons

atomic nucleus

4

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designared by a subscript

atomic number

5

Another term for atomic mass

Atomic weight

6

a positively cahrged ion

cation

7

an attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gainn complete outer electron shell.

chemical bond

8

In a chemical reasction, the state in which the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.

chemical equilibrium

9

the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter

chemical reaction

10

a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

compound

11

a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons

covalent bond

12

a double covalent bond or the sharing of two pairs of electrons by two atoms

double bond

13

an energy level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom

electron shell

14

a subtomic particle with a single negative electrical chargeand a mass 1/2000 that of a neutron or proton. one or more electrons more around the nucleus of an atom.

Electron

15

the attraction of a given atom for the electrons of a covalent bond

Electronegativity

16

any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactions

element

17

n/a

energy level

18

the capacity to cause charge especially to do work

energy

19

a type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molcule or in another region of the same molecule

hydrogen bond

20

an atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons thus acquiring a charge

ion

21

the clinging of one substance to another, such as water to plant cells by means of hydrogen bonds

adhesion

22

the energy associated with the realative motion or objects, moving matter can perfrom work by imparting motion to another atom

kinetic energy

23

a molecule (such as water) with an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the molecule

polar molecule

24

a substance that is dissolved in a solution

solute

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a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances

solution

26

the dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known

solvent

27

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of a substance to change its temp by 1 degree celsius

specific heat

28

Having an affinity for water

hydrophilic

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having no affinity for water, tending to coalesce and form droplets in water

hydrophobic

30

a chemical bond reulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions

Ionic bond

31

a compoind resulting from the formation of an ionic bond also called a salt

ionic compound

32

One of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass

isotope

33

the total number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus

mass number

34

anything that takes up space and has mass

matter

35

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

molecule

36

a subatomic particle having no charge, with a mass of about 1.7 times 10 to the negative 24th power g. Found in the nucleus

neutron

37

a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity

nonpolar covalent bond

38

the energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangment

potential energy

39

a material resulting from a chemical reaction

product

40

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge

proton

41

an isotope that is unstable, the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy

radioactive isotope

42

a starting material in a chemical reaction

reactant

43

a compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond, also called an ionic compound

salt

44

an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts

trace element

45

an electron in the outermost electron shell

valence electron

46

sthe outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in in the chemical reaction of that atom

valence shell

47

sthe bonding capacity of a given atom, the number of covalent bonds an atom can form, which usually equals the number of unpaired electrons in its outermost shell

valence

48

Weak attractoins b/w molecules or parts of molecules that result from transient local partial charges

Van der Waals interactions

49

a measure of hydrogen ion concentration

pH

50

a measure of how quickly it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

Surface Tension

51

a meausure in degrees of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules in in a body of matter

temperature

52

the linking together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds

Cohesion

53

the process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the freatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state

evaporative cooling

54

the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted to the gaseous state

heat of vaporization