Censorship and Propaganda Flashcards Preview

Russian Rulers - Nature of Government > Censorship and Propaganda > Flashcards

Flashcards in Censorship and Propaganda Deck (27):
1

Alexander II's Glastnost gave greater freedom of ____ and ____

It also included new ____ law, ____ reforms, new ____ laws, creation of ____.

 

Alexander II's Glastnost gave greater freedom of thought and press

It also included new judicial law, educational reforms, new military laws, creation of zemstva.

2

Specifically, Alex II's Glastnost allowed periodicals and journals to be published without ____ ____.

However, the government retained the right to ____ publications of a '____ ____'.

Also editors could be ____ under the ____ 'Temporary Rules'

Specifically, Alex II's Glastnost allowed periodicals and journals to be published without prior.

However, the government retained the right to withdraw publications of a 'dangerous orientation'.

Also editors could be punished under the 1865 'Temporary Rules'

3

Thus Alex II's ____ of publications technique was flawed as the public were still able to ____ 'dangerous' information and once they had been circulated they were much harder to ____.

Thus Alex II's withdrawal of publications technique was flawed as the public were still able to access 'dangerous' information and once they had been circulated they were much harder to control.

4

Alex II had a small amount of propaganda with the government newspapers, ____, which provided information on ____ items.

Alex II had a small amount of propaganda with the government newspapers, Ruskii, which provided information on official items.

5

As a result of Alex II's Glasnost:

  • In less than 10 years (18__-__) book publications had increased by over ___
  • In 30 years (between 18__-__) book publications had increased by more than __ fold.
  • 1872 - first Russian translation of ____'s '____ ____' Vol.1 published
  • 1894 - __ newspapers

As a result of Alex II's Glasnost:

  • In less than 10 years (1855-64) book publications had increased by over 800
  • In 30 years (between 1864-94) book publications had increased by more than 10 fold.
  • 1872 - first Russian translation of Marx's 'Das Kapital' Vol.1 published
  • 1894 - 89 newspapers

6

Alexander III reintroduced ____-____ censorship.

  • In ____, a 'temporary law' tightened censorship, making it difficult to distribute or sell publications ____ of the ____ in any way. Editors were threatened with ____ ____.
  • In ____, Alex III passed a statute completely destroying any ____ of professors in deciding what was ___ and by ____.
  • By ____, the Church had taken back full control of ____ education, and significant ____ barriers had been put in place to deter young peasants from entering ____.

Alexander III reintroduced pre-publication censorship.

  • In 1882, a 'temporary law' tightened censorship, making it difficult to distribute or sell publications critical of the government in any way. Editors were threatened with life bans.
  • In 1884, Alex III passed a statute completely destroying any autonomy of professors in deciding what was taught and by who.
  • By 1887, the Church had taken back full control of primary education, and significant financial barriers had been put in place to deter young peasants from entering education.

7

Nicholas II also made the mistake of getting rid of ____-____ censorship.

However, publishers could still be ____ or even ____ ____ for circulating subversive material.

Nicholas II also made the mistake of getting rid of pre-publication censorship.

However, publishers could still be fined or even closed down for circulating subversive material.

8

Under Nicholas II in ____, a considerable ____ of the press took place.

This resulted in:

  • Between 1900-14, number of periodicals x_
  • Kopek newspapers aimed at the ____ emerged. In 2 years, ____ of these were in circulation
  • ____ matters discussed in Duma began to be reported in ____, although details were occasionally ____ or ____.

Under Nicholas II in 1894, a considerable expansion of the press took place.

This resulted in:

  • Between 1900-14, number of periodicals x3
  • Kopek newspapers aimed at the proletariat emerged. In 2 years, 25,000 of these were in circulation
  • Political matters discussed in Duma began to be reported in print, although details were occasionally omitted or changed.

9

The Russian troops were subject to censorship during ____. Got their news from ____ ____, including the news of the ____ of the ____!

The Russian troops were subject to censorship during WW1. Got their news from foreign broadcasts, including the news of the abdication of the tsar!

10

When the Bolsheviks took over they immediately ____ press freedom, in order to suppress '____ ____'

When the Bolsheviks took over they immediately abolished press freedom, in order to suppress 'counter revolutionaries'

11

'Agitprop' was founded in ____, and promoted an ____ picture of Russian ____.

It had survaillance on ____, ____, ____, and the ____ to prevent the dissemination of ____-____ material.

'Agitprop' was founded in 1921, and promoted an idealised picture of Russian life.

It had survaillance on schools, libraries, cinemas, and the radio to prevent the dissemination of counter-revolutionary material.

12

Writers who supported the new regime ____, while others such as Z____, who predicted a ____ state, were labelled ____ and were ____.

Writers who supported the new regime flourished, while others such as Zemyatin, who predicted a totalitarian state, were labelled subversive and were victimised.

13

By ____, Stalin had all literary groups ____ ____.

Writers had to join the ___ to carry on writing.

By 1932, Stalin had all literary groups closed down.

Writers had to join the USW to carry on writing.

14

In ____, it was announced that all USW members must produce material in style of '____ ____' i.e. depicting struggle of ____ to overcome ____ for success of ____.

Any work done had to be approved by the ____.

Those that resisted were ____, sent to ____ ____, or ____.

In 1934, it was announced that all USW members must produce material in style of 'socialist realism' i.e. depicting struggle of proletariat to overcome oppression for success of communism.

Any work done had to be approved by the party.

Those that resisted were arrested, sent to labour camps, or executed.

15

After ____, Stalin was particularly concerend to ____ information from the rest of the world.

As a result, radio waves were ____, news ____, and there were restrictions put on ____ to prevents ____ behavior.

After WW2, Stalin was particularly concerend to doctor information from the rest of the world.

As a result, radio waves were distorted, news fictionalised, and there were restrictions put on arts to prevents bourgeois behavior.

16

The 'New Soviet Man' was a propaganda concept promoting the ____ Soviet citizen:

  • Hard ____
  • Law ____
  • ____
  • ____ of Communist Party

The 'New Soviet Man' was a propaganda concept promoting the ideal Soviet citizen:

  • Hard working
  • Law abiding
  • Moral
  • Supportive of Communist Party

17

Khrushcehv ____ censorship.

As a result:

  • Books published mid-1920s - late 1950s, books published x_
  • By 1959, ____ libraries had __x number of books than 1913
  • By early 1960s, __ million read newspapers

Khrushcehv relaxed censorship.

As a result:

  • Books published mid-1920s - late 1950s, books published x2
  • By 1959, 150,000 libraries had 10x number of books than 1913
  • By early 1960s, 60 million read newspapers

18

The tsars only used a ____ amount of propaganda. 

These included ____, ____, ____, ____ events (e.g. ___th Anniversary of ____ Dynasty in ____ ____)

The tsars only used a small amount of propaganda. 

These included pamphlets, portraits, photographs, staged events (e.g. 300th Anniversary of Romanov Dynasty in February 1913)

19

Lenin and Stalin (but primarily ____) used ____ of ____ to achieve support.

Examples:

  • Imagery of ____, including ____
  • ____ and displaying of Lenin's body in ____ ____ mausoleum
  • Renaming Tsaritsyn ____ (____)
  • Renaming Petrograd ____ (____)
  • Slogan 'Stalin is the ____ of today'
  • 'Marxism-____ism' used by Stalin to give him ____'s authority
  • Use of ____, ____, ____ depicting Stalin as a man of the people (dressed as a ____)

Lenin and Stalin (but primarily Stalin) used cults of personality to achieve support.

Examples:

  • Imagery of Lenin, including posthumously
  • Embalming and displaying of Lenin's body in Red Square mausoleum
  • Renaming Tsaritsyn Stalingrad (1923)
  • Renaming Petrograd Leningrad (1924)
  • Slogan 'Stalin is the Lenin of today'
  • 'Marxism-Leninism' used by Stalin to give him Lenin's authority
  • Use of posters, photographs, statues depicting Stalin as a man of the people (dressed as a peasant)

20

Stalin effectively used newspapers (such as ____ and ____) to promote achievements of ____ ____ ____ and other ____.

Stalin effectively used newspapers (such as Pravda and Izvestiyato promote achievements of Five Year Plans and other reforms.

21

Under Stalin, youths could join youth organisations (the ____ and ____) to protect the young from the '____ of ____ culture' i.e. ____ them.

____ memebers were encouraged to tell tales on those who ____ their leaders.

Membership increased x_ between 1929-41

Under Stalin, youths could join youth organisations (the Pioneers and Komosomol) to protect the young from the 'degeneracy of bourgeois culture' i.e. indoctrinate them.

Komosomol memebers were encouraged to tell tales on those who criticised their leaders.

Membership increased x5 between 1929-41

22

The arts were manipulated by the Communists to present a popular culture that emphasised the role of the '____ ____' and ____ values.

Banned any ____ from the norm e.g. ____ music

The arts were manipulated by the Communists to present a popular culture that emphasised the role of the 'little man' and traditional values.

Banned any deviation from the norm e.g. jazz music

23

In sport, the ____ and ____ ___ football teams were used as propoganda in the rest of ____ to show the success of communism.

In sport, the Dynamo and Spartak Moscow football teams were used as propoganda in the rest of Europe to show the success of communism.

24

The 'Stakahanovite Movement' boosted ____, by encouraging workers to work to ____ ____ of ____ miner Stakhanov (produced well above ____ quanitity of ____ per shift).

They were given rewards such as ____ to Moscow, good ____, ____, tickets to the ____.

The 'Stakahanovite Movement' boosted productivity, by encouraging workers to work to high standards of Donbas miner Stakhanov (produced well above average quanitity of coal per shift).

They were given rewards such as holidays to Moscow, good housing, televisions, tickets to the cinema.

25

Stalin used the cinema to bolster his rule by using it to promote ____ and the ____ ____ ____.

The Council of ____ ____ instructed film makers to use '____ ____'

'The ____ ____' about ____ was a hit in cinemas

Stalin used the cinema to bolster his rule by using it to promote collectivisation and the Five Year Plans.

The Council of People's Commissars instructed film makers to use 'socialist realism'

'The Conveyor Belt' about production was a hit in cinemas

26

De-Stalinisation gave filmmakers greater ____ ____.

By 1959, ___ films were made, and the number of cinemas had increased to nearly ____

De-Stalinisation gave filmmakers greater creative freedom.

By 1959, 145 films were made, and the number of cinemas had increased to nearly 59,000

27

The Communists used propaganda more ____ and ____ than the tsars, as they recognised that needed to ____ people to support them - had perspective of the ____ of the tsars in doing so against ____.

The tsars paid less attention to propaganda than the Communists, because they expected ____ and ____ submission, as their power was ordained by ____.

Khrushchev's relaxation of ____ similar to ____, arguably part of reason he was ____.

The Communists used propaganda more effectively and extensively than the tsars, as they recognised that needed to persuade people to support them - had perspective of the failure of the tsars in doing so against them.

The tsars paid less attention to propaganda than the Communists, because they expected total and willing submission, as their power was ordained by God.

Khrushchev's relaxation of censorship similar to tsars', arguably part of reason he was overthrown.