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Flashcards in Extent and Impact of Reform Deck (17):
1

Emancipation of the Serfs ____

Strengths:

  • S-t removes threat of ____
  • Enables migration to ____ for ____

Limitations:

  • Serfs/Mir not ____ - dissatisfaction leads to ____ riots in 1861
  • Long-term '____ ____' - ____ in average size of peasant land holdings as ____ between each male heir.

Impact:

  • __ million serfs become peasants
  • Allows greater ____ activity
  • Makes way for ____ during 'Great Spurt'

Emancipation of the Serfs 1861

Strengths:

  • S-t removes threat of revolution
  • Enables migration to cities for industrialisation

Limitations:

  • Serfs/Mir not consulted - dissatisfaction leads to 1159 riots in 1861
  • Long-term 'land hunger' - decline in average size of peasant land holdings as divided between each male heir.

Impact:

  • 80 million serfs become peasants
  • Allows greater revolutionary activity
  • Makes way for industrialisation during 'Great Spurt'

2

The Zemstvo ____

Strengths:

  • Some ____
  • Run by the '____ ____' i.e. ____ nobility

Limitations:

  • Could only debate ____ not ____ issues
  • Dominated by ____

Impact:

  • First form of ____ ____ and therefore first dilution of ____
  • Forum for the ____ to debate ____ ideas
  • Opened way for further ____ reform

The Zemstvo 1861

Strengths:

  • Some democracy
  • Run by the 'Third Element' i.e. liberal nobility

Limitations:

  • Could only debate local not political issues
  • Dominated by nobility

Impact:

  • First form of local government and therefore first dilution of autocracy
  • Forum for the intelligensia to debate liberal ideas
  • Opened way for further political reform

3

Alexander II / Dmitry Milyutin's Military Reforms ____ - ____

Strengths:

  • Nobility also liable for ____
  • Peasants could be ____ to rank of ____ based on ____ not ____
  • Some ____ progress
  • Reduced ____ by reducing conscription from __ years to _
  • Forces better ____ with creation of military ____

Limitations:

  • Peasants mostly ____ so training ____
  • Still had poor ____
  • Nobility managed to ____ conscription through ____

Impact:

  • Won Russo-____ war in ____, albeit with some ____
  • Failure in ____ and Russo-____ war ____-_

Alexander II / Dmitry Milyutin's Military Reforms 1861-81

Strengths:

  • Nobility also liable for conscription
  • Peasants could be promoted to rank of officer based on merit not birth
  • Some industrial progress
  • Reduced costs by reducing conscription from 21 years to 6
  • Forces better educated with creation of military academies

Limitations:

  • Peasants mostly illiterate so training limited
  • Still had poor equipment
  • Nobility managed to avoid conscription through substitutes

Impact:

  • Won Russo-Turkish war in 1878, albeit with some struggle
  • Failure in Russo-Japanese war 1904-5 and WW1

4

The October Manifesto ____

Strengths:

  • Creation of the ____ in ____ - a ____ government
  • Introduction of ____ liberties
  • More ____ than ever before

Limitations:

  • Tsar could ___ Duma decisions in line with Article __
  • Flawed ____ system - bias in ____ college to the ____
  • Fundemental Laws of ____ meant Tsar's authority ____

Impact:

  • Allowed ____ ____, ____, and ____ to have governmental power for first time
  • Calls for a ____ Assembly eventually led to the ____ ____

The October Manifesto 1905

Strengths:

  • Creation of the Duma in 1906 - a constitutional government
  • Introduction of civil liberties
  • More voting than ever before

Limitations:

  • Tsar could overrule Duma decisions in line with Article 87
  • Flawed voting system - bias in electoral colleges to the nobility
  • Fundemental Laws of 1906 meant Tsar's authority reasserted

Impact:

  • Allowed Social Democrats, Mensheviks, and Bolsheviks to have governmental power for first time
  • Calls for a Constituent Assembly eventually led to the Provisional Government

5

The Fundemental Laws ____

Strengths:

  • Reasserts Tsar's ____ and thus ____

Limitations:

  • This ____ the October Manifesto - stirs ____
  • Because of above there is difficulty in ____ the Fundemental Laws

Impact:

  • ____ holds Tsarist system together

The Fundemental Laws 1906

Strengths:

  • Reasserts Tsar's authority and thus autocracy

Limitations:

  • This contradicts the October Manifesto - stirs opposition
  • Because of above there is difficulty in upholding the Fundemental Laws

Impact:

  • Temporarily holds Tsarist system together

6

Land Captains ____

Aim:

  • To ____ local influences of the ____ and village ____ - give Tsar ____ control
  • Alex III also restricted ____ to zemstva

Land Captains 1889

Aim:

  • To restrict local influences of the Mir and village assemblies - give Tsar political control
  • Alex III also restricted electionsto zemstva

7

Stolypin's Agrarian Reforms / the '____ on the ____' from ____

Strengths:

  • More ____ farming - created _._ million Kulaks
  • Agricultural ____ lead to literacy rate amongst men increasing from __% in 1897 to __% in 1920
  • 1909-13 GNP rose _._% per year

Limitations:

  • There were __ million peasants, Kulaks only a ____
  • Stolypin's '____ ____' creates resentment
  • Creates resentment among ____-class
  • Stolypin assasinated in ____ ____

Impact:

  • Creation of ____ class
  • Allows Stalin to scapegoat with ____

Stolypin's Agrarian Reforms / the 'Wager on the Strong' from 1906

Strengths:

  • More productive farming - created 2.3 million Kulaks
  • Agricultural schools lead to literacy rate amongst men increasing from 51% in 1897 to 82% in 1920
  • 1909-13 GNP rose 3.5% per year

Limitations:

  • There were 20 million peasants, Kulaks only a fraction
  • Stolypin's 'nectie tie' creates resentment
  • Creates resentment among higher-class
  • Stolypin assasinated in September 1911

Impact:

  • Creation of Kulak class
  • Allows Stalin to scapegoat with de-Kulakization

8

The Provisional Government, Civil Rights, and Constituent Assembly ____ ____

Strengths:

  • 1st ever '____' ____ government
  • _ Liberal Principles
  • Freedom of ____
  • Dissolution of the ____
  • Political prisoners ____

Limitations:

  • Constituent Assembly lasts ____ ____
  • Provisional Government lasts ____ ____
  • Democracy bad for ____ effort and necessity to be ____ underminds ____ values

Impact:

  • Allowed ____ to seize power

The Provisional Government, Civil Rights, and Constituent Assembly March 1917

Strengths:

  • 1st ever 'theoretically' democratic government
  • 8 Liberal Principles
  • Freedom of speech
  • Dissolution of the Okhrana
  • Political prisoners released

Limitations:

  • Constituent Assembly lasts 1 day
  • Provisional Government lasts 6 months
  • Democracy bad for war effort and necessity to be dictatorial underminds democratic values

Impact:

  • Allowed Bolsheviks to seize power

9

War Communism ____-____

Strengths:

  • Wins ____ the war
  • Seize control of ____ hub of Russia

Limitations:

  • S-t ____ economy
  • Open revolt in ____
  • Sets up repressive regime for ____ rule

Impact:

  • Grain requisitioning supports ____ ____
  • Causes ____ with _ million deaths
  • Complete Bolshevik control of ____

War Communism 1918-21

Strengths:

  • Wins Reds the war
  • Seize control of industrial hub of Russia

Limitations:

  • S-t devastates economy
  • Open revolt in countryside
  • Sets up repressive regime for Stalin's rule

Impact:

  • Grain requisitioning supports Red troops
  • Causes famine with 5 million deaths
  • Complete Bolshevik control of industry

10

The New Economic Plan ____-__

Strengths:

  • Food production ____
  • Small businesses ____
  • Taxes ____ economy by ____

Limitations:

  • Only led to ____ wage increases for ____
  • Resentment and corruption of ____men
  • Heavy industry under ____ ____
  • Grain procurement crises ____
  • Scissors Crisis ____
  • Rich Kulaks become ____

Impact:

  • First ____ in Russia
  • Only small improvements for ____
  • Just makes way for ____ and ____

The New Economic Plan 1922-28

Strengths:

  • Food production increased
  • Small businesses flourished
  • Taxes boosted economy by 1926

Limitations:

  • Only led to small wage increases for workers
  • Resentment and corruption of NEPmen
  • Heavy industry under complete control
  • Grain procurement crises 1928
  • Scissors Crisis 1923
  • Rich Kulaks become scapegoat

Impact:

  • First capitalism in Russia
  • Only small improvements for workers
  • Just makes way for de-Kulakisation and collectivisation

11

Collectivisation ____-__

Strengths:

  • By 1941, __% peasants in collective farms
  • Crushes peasant ____
  • Just about keeps everyone ____

Limitations:

  • __ years to establish
  • Peasant ____ - ____-__ man-made famine causes __ million deaths
  • By 1930s consumption of meat and fish fallen by __%
  • Still some ____ land
  • Still not ____-____

Impact:

  • Peasant resistance is ____

Collectivisation 1928-40

Strengths:

  • By 1941, 98% peasants in collective farms
  • Crushes peasant resistance
  • Just about keeps everyone fed

Limitations:

  • 10 years to establish
  • Peasant resistance - 1932-34 man-made famine causes 10 million deaths
  • By 1930s consumption of meat and fish fallen by 80%
  • Still some private land
  • Still not self-sufficient

Impact:

  • Peasant resistance is crushed

12

The Five-Year Plans ____-__

Strengths:

  • Super-power status by end of ____
  • Massive improvements in ____, ____, etc.
  • Weapons for ____ - they ____

Limitations:

  • Only focus on ____ ____
  • Become economically ____ without ____ ____

Impact:

  • Win ____
  • Successfully ____
  • L-t traps _____

The Five-Year Plans 1928-38

Strengths:

  • Super-power status by end of WW2
  • Massive improvements in industry, technology, etc.
  • Weapons for WW2 - they win

Limitations:

  • Only focus on heavy industry
  • Become economically stuck without consumer goods

Impact:

  • Win WW2
  • Successfully industrialise
  • L-t traps economy

13

Stalin Constitution ____

Strengths:

  • More ____
  • Better ____ structure

Limitations:

  • An ____ - no change to ____ system

Impact:

  • Basically ____ structure until collapse of ____

Stalin Constitution 1936

Strengths:

  • More regionalism
  • Better heirarchical structure

Limitations:

  • An illusion - no change to party system

Impact:

  • Basically same structure until collapse of USSR

14

De-Stalinisation from ____

Strengths:

  • Amnesty of ____-____ prisoners
  • More power to ____
  • Some ____ with ___ regional councils set up
  • Relaxation of ____

Limitations:

  • Reverses ____ relaxation
  • Retains ____ in Eastern Europe - ____ die in Hungary 
  • ____ repression - __ die at Novocherkassk ____
  • Retains ____ economy

Impact:

  • Gives freedoms that arguably lead to Khrushchev's ____
  • Economy ____

De-Stalinisation from 1953

Strengths:

  • Amnesty of non-political prisoners
  • More power to Politburo
  • Some decentralisation with 105 regional councils set up
  • Relaxation of censorship

Limitations:

  • Reverses censorship relaxation
  • Retains regimes in Eastern Europe - 20,000 die in Hungary 
  • Interanl repression - 26 die at Novocherkassk 1962
  • Retains command economy

Impact:

  • Gives freedoms that arguably lead to Khrushchev's downfall
  • Economy stagnates

15

The Virgin Lands Scheme ____-__

Strengths:

  • _ years success - great ____ ____
  • __,____ migrated

Limitations:

  • About _ famines, one stretching over _ years
  • Badly ____, poor use of ____
  • Land was poor ____
  • Tried to grow ____ and ____ in Siberia
  • Poor ____ conditions erodes ____ of volunteers

Impact:

  • Still dependent on ____ ____
  • Damages Khrushchev's ____ - contributes to his ____

The Virgin Lands Scheme 1954-63

Strengths:

  • 2 years success - great crop yield
  • 50,000 migrated

Limitations:

  • About 4 famines, one stretching over 2 years
  • Badly planned, poor use of fertilisers
  • Land was poor quality
  • Tried to grow maize and melons in Siberia
  • Poor living conditions erodes enthusiasm of volunteers

Impact:

  • Still dependent on foreign imports
  • Damages Khrushchev's prestige - contributes to his overthrow

16

Witte's 'Great Spurt' under Nicholas II

Strengths:

  • Coal production x_
  • Iron and steel production x_
  • Improved ____-____ railway - influence in the ____
  • New ____ and ____ industries developed

Limitations:

  • Ignored ____ and ____
  • Focus on ____ ____ meant neglect of ____ ____

Impact:

  • Industry ____
  • Business class ____
  • No ___-class created
  • Nothing from or for ____

Witte's 'Great Spurt' under Nicholas II

Strengths:

  • Coal production x2
  • Iron and steel production x7
  • Improved Trans-Siberian railway - influence in the east
  • New oil and chemical industries developed

Limitations:

  • Ignored engineering and textiles
  • Focus on heavy industry meant neglect of consumer goods

Impact:

  • Industry flourished
  • Business class flourished
  • No middle-class created
  • Nothing from or for below

17

Overall, across both the tsarist and communist eras, there was a ____-____ nature to reform

Overall, across both the tsarist and communist eras, there was a top-down nature to reform