Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation Deck (230):
0

Pharmaceutical Phase

Drug becomes a solution through disintegration & dissolution in order to cross biologic membrane

1

Dissolution

Dissolving of smaller particles in GI fluid before absorption

2

Disintegration

Breakdown of tablet into smaller particles

3

Pharmacokinetics

Process of drug movement to achieve drug action

4

Absorption

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids

5

Absorption

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids...the primary factor affecting drug bioavailability...

6

Active Absorption

Type of absorption that requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move drug against concentration gradient Requires energy

7

Pinocytosis

Type of absorption by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles

8

First Pass Effect

Process by which the drug passes to the liver first AKA Hepatic First Pass

9

Bioavailability

Subcategory of absorption Percentage of the drug dose that reaches systemic circulation

10

Protein Binding Effect

A portion of a drug is bound to protein making it inactive & not available to receptors

11

Distribution

Process by which a drug becomes available to body fluids & tissues...influenced by blood flow, drug's affinity to tissue & the protein binding effect...many drugs travel in blood stream via proteins (albumin, globulins)

12

Free Drug

A portion of a drug that remains unbound to protein making it active & able to cause a pharmacological response

13

Half life

Time is takes for half of the drug concentration to be eliminated

14

Metabolism

Process by which the body inactivates drugs or biotransforms drugs...liver is primary site for this

15

Excretion

Process by which the body eliminates drugs Main route is the kidneys (urine)

16

Pharmacodynamics

The study of the way drugs affect the body

17

Dose Response

Relationship between minimal versus the maximal amount of drug dose needed to produce result

18

Maximal Efficacy

Maximum drug effect

19

Peak of Action

Occurs when drug reaches it's highest blood or plasma concentration

20

Onset of Action

Time it takes to reach minimum effective concentration (MEC) after drug is administered...the period of time between drug administration and the first indication the drug was effective

21

Duration of Action

Length of time the drug has a pharmacological effect

22

Time Response Curve

Chart that evaluates the 3 parameters of drug action: onset, peak & duration

23

Receptor Theory

The activity of many drugs is determined by the ability of the drug to bind to a specific receptor The better it fits at the receptor site, the more biologically active the drug is

24

Kinase-Linked Receptors

Ligand-binding domain for drug binding is on cell surface Drug activates enzyme inside cell

25

Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

Channel spans the cell membrane & opens allowing for flow of ions (primarily sodium & calcium)

26

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Systems

Three components: the receptor, G protein that binds with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) & the effector (enzyme or ion channel)

27

Ligand-Binding Domain

Site on the receptor at which the drug binds

28

Nuclear Receptors

Receptors found in cell nucleus Activation through transcription factors is prolonged

29

Agonists

Drugs that produce response

30

Antagonists

Drugs that block a response

31

Nonspecific Drugs

Affect various sites

32

Nonselective Drugs

Affect various receptors

33

Therapeutic Index

Estimates margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective (therapeutic) dose (ED) in 50% of people and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of people The closer the ratio is to 1, the greater the danger for toxicity

34

Drug Actions

Stimulation/Depression Replacement Inhibition/Killing of Organisms Irritation

35

Therapeutic Range

Therapeutic Window Level of drug between the minimum effective concentration (MEC) in the plasma for obtaining desired drug action & the maximum toxic concentration (toxic effect)

36

Peak Drug Levels

Highest concentration of a drug in the plasma at a specific time Indicates rate of absorption

37

Trough Drug Levels

Lowest concentration of drug in the plasma at a specific time Indicates rate of elimination

38

Loading Dose

Large initial dose given to achieve a rapid MEC when immediate response is desired

39

Side Effects

Physiological effects not related to desired drug effects

40

Adverse Reactions

Range of untoward effects of drugs that cause mild to severe side effects More severe than side effects & always undesirable

41

Toxicity

Toxic effects When drug levels exceed therapeutic range

42

Pharmacogenetics

Scientific discipline of studying how the effect of drugs actions varies from a predicted drug response due to genetic or hereditary factors

43

Tachyphylaxis

Rapid decrease in response to the drug "Acute tolerance"

44

Tolerance

Decreased responsiveness to a drug over the course of therapy

45

Placebo Effect

Psychological benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of drug effect

46

U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

Approves new drugs Develops bio markers & other scientific tools Streamlines clinical trials Ensures product safety

47

United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USPS-NF)

Current 3 volume authoritative source for drug standards Annual publication with 2 supplements

48

Controlled Substances

Drugs with potential for abuse Described in 5 schedules

49

Chemical Name

Drug name that describes it's chemical structure

50

Generic Name

Drug's official, nonproprietary name

51

Brand Name

Drug name chosen by the drug company that is usually trademarked & owned by that company

52

Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)

U.S. sole legal drug enforcement agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Justice

53

Drug Interactions

Altered or modified action/effect of a drug as a result of interaction with one or multiple other drugs

54

Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs

Obtained without a prescription

55

Drug Incompatibility

Chemical or physical reaction that occurs among 2 or more drugs in vitro (outside the body)

56

Pharmacokinetic Interactions

Changes that occur in absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of a drug

57

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)

Practice of checking serum drug levels Especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic range & highly protein bound drugs

58

Pharmacodynamic Interactions

Interactions that result in additive, synergistic or antagonistic drug effects

59

Additive Effect

Occurs when 2 drugs with similar actions are administered result in a sum of effects

60

Synergistic Effect

Occurs when 1 drug has a potentiate effect on another Clinical effect is substantially greater than the combined effect of the 2 drugs

61

Antagonistic Effect

Occurs when 2 drugs given have opposite effects & cancel each other out

62

Common symptoms of drug-drug interaction

Nausea, GI upset, headache & dizziness

63

Drug-Food Interactions

Food can increase, decrease or delay drug absorption Food can bind with drugs causing decreased or slower absorption Food may have impact on absorption of different dosage forms

64

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

Abnormal plasma/serum electrolyte concentrations can affect certain drug therapies

65

Drug Induced Photosensitivity

Skin reaction caused by exposure to sunlight EX: sulfa drugs

66

Elimination

"Excretion"...Process by which the body eliminates drugs...main route is the kidneys (urine)

67

High Therapeutic Index

A wide margin of safety for drug use

68

Low Therapeutic Index

A narrow margin of safety for drug use

69

Pharmacology

The study of the effects of chemical substances on living tissue. They study of drugs, their sources, nature & properties. The study of the body's reaction to drugs

70

Drug

Any chemical substance that, when administered, produces a change in function of the body.

71

Contraindication

A symptom or circumstance that makes treatment with a drug or device unsafe or inappropriate.

72

Cumulative Effect

A drug effect that is apparent only after several doses have been given. It is caused by excretion or metabolic degradation of only a fraction of each dose given.

73

Informed Consent

A policy in place for the patient's protection. It allows the patient to be informed, without coercion, about healthcare procedures.

74

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

An annual compendium of information concerning drugs, primarily prescription and diagnostic products.

75

United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USP-NF)

A collection of officially recognized drug names. Includes drugs of established usefulness.

76

Teratogenic

Causing abnormal development of the embryo

77

Off-Label Uses

Used for something other than what it has been approved for...EX: glucophage for weight loss

78

Four Sources of Drugs

Plants, Animals, Minerals & Synthetic

79

1938 Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act

Act that empowered the FDA to monitor & regulate the marketing & manufacturing of drugs

80

1970 Controlled Substances Act

Act that identified a schedule that showed the potential for abuse of drugs

81

Nurse Practice Acts

State laws regarding nursing practice

82

Clinical Pharmacist

A specialist who guides the physician in prescribing drugs (may be stationed on a patient care unit to assist physicians, nurses, and patients.)

83

Pharmacotherapeutics

The study of of the effects of drugs on the body.

84

Chronopharmacology

The study of the actions of drugs in relationship to time

85

Chemotherapy

The study of drugs used to prohibit the growth & production of abnormal cells.

86

Misfeasance

Giving the wrong drug or drug dose that results in the client's death

87

Nonfeasance

Omitting a drug dose that results in the client's death.

88

Malfeasance

Giving the correct drug but by the wrong route that results in the client's death.

89

Schedule I Drug

A drug with no medical use with very high abuse potential that may lead to severe dependence (EX: heroine, marijuana, LSD, STP, peyote, hashish)

90

Schedule II Drug

A drug with medical use but with high abuse potential that leads to severe physical or psychological dependence (EX: morphine, opium, methadone, secobarbital, codeine, amphetamines, cocaine, oxycodone)

91

Schedule III Drug

A drug with medical use with moderate to low physical abuse potential but high psychological abuse potential (EX: Empirin with codiene, Lortab, Fiorinal, Tylenol with codeine)

92

Schedule IV Drug

A drug with medical use with limited physical or psychological dependence potential (EX: phenobarbital, Librium, Valium, Dalmane)

93

Schedule V Drug

A drug with medical use with very limited phsycial or psychological dependence potential...may not require prescription (EX: Robitussin AC, Lomotil)

94

Ampule

a sealed glass container used to store single doses of liquid injectible drugs

95

Vial

a glass container with rubber stoppers used to store liquid or powdered medication

96

Cartridge

single unit doses of parenteral medications to be used with specific injecting devices

97

Liniments

liquid suspensions for lubrication that are applied by rubbing

98

Ointments

semisolid medications used for local protection or for transdermal systemic effect

99

Troche

an oral preparation that dissolves in the mouth

100

Affinity

The inclination a drug has for binding or attaching itself to a specific receptor site

101

Antimetabolites

drugs which work by combining with cell enzymes because they resemble the usual substances acted on by the enzyme

102

Elimination

the period in which a drug is being excreted from the body

103

Termination

time when the effects of the drug are no longer evident in the body

104

Idiosyncratic Response

an abnormal or peculiar response to a drug (EX: elderly patient stimulated rather than sedated by sleeping medications)

105

Iatrogenic Response

relatively predictable adverse drug responses caused unintentionally by medical treatment (EX: GI ulceration from long term aspirin therapy)

106

Tachyphylaxis Response

a quickly developing tolerance to a drug given in rapid, repeated administrations (EX: using a topical nasal decongestant over just a few days can develop a blunted response)

107

Cumulative Response

results when the body cannot metabolize a dose of the drug before the next dose is given...this means the drug is being excreted more slowly than it is being absorbed

108

Antagonism

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is less than the sum of the two drugs acting separately

109

Summation

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is equal to the sum of the individual effects of the two drugs

110

Synergism

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the two drugs acting independently

111

Potentiation

occurs when two drugs are given concurrently and one increases the effect of the other...the one doing the potentation doesn't have the intended therapeutic effect

112

Competitive Antagonism

occurs when two different drug molecules compete for protein binding sites in the blood

113

Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the 1938 Act

legislation reference to drug labels & increased control on drug safety

114

FDA Modernization Act of 1997

legislation act that accelerated review of new drugs, required drug companies to provide info on off-label drugs & offer advanced notices of plans to discontinue drugs

115

Drug becomes a solution through disintegration & dissolution in order to cross biologic membrane

Pharmaceutical Phase

116

Dissolving of smaller particles in GI fluid before absorption

Dissolution

117

Breakdown of tablet into smaller particles

Disintegration

118

Process of drug movement to achieve drug action

Pharmacokinetics

119

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids

Absorption

120

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids...the primary factor affecting drug bioavailability...

Absorption

121

Type of absorption that requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move drug against concentration gradient Requires energy

Active Absorption

122

Type of absorption by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles

Pinocytosis

123

Process by which the drug passes to the liver first AKA Hepatic First Pass

First Pass Effect

124

Subcategory of absorption Percentage of the drug dose that reaches systemic circulation

Bioavailability

125

A portion of a drug is bound to protein making it inactive & not available to receptors

Protein Binding Effect

126

Process by which a drug becomes available to body fluids & tissues...influenced by blood flow, drug's affinity to tissue & the protein binding effect...many drugs travel in blood stream via proteins (albumin, globulins)

Distribution

127

A portion of a drug that remains unbound to protein making it active & able to cause a pharmacological response

Free Drug

128

Time is takes for half of the drug concentration to be eliminated

Half life

129

Process by which the body inactivates drugs or biotransforms drugs...liver is primary site for this

Metabolism

130

Process by which the body eliminates drugs Main route is the kidneys (urine)

Excretion

131

The study of the way drugs affect the body

Pharmacodynamics

132

Relationship between minimal versus the maximal amount of drug dose needed to produce result

Dose Response

133

Maximum drug effect

Maximal Efficacy

134

Occurs when drug reaches it's highest blood or plasma concentration

Peak of Action

135

Time it takes to reach minimum effective concentration (MEC) after drug is administered...the period of time between drug administration and the first indication the drug was effective

Onset of Action

136

Length of time the drug has a pharmacological effect

Duration of Action

137

Chart that evaluates the 3 parameters of drug action: onset, peak & duration

Time Response Curve

138

The activity of many drugs is determined by the ability of the drug to bind to a specific receptor The better it fits at the receptor site, the more biologically active the drug is

Receptor Theory

139

Ligand-binding domain for drug binding is on cell surface Drug activates enzyme inside cell

Kinase-Linked Receptors

140

Channel spans the cell membrane & opens allowing for flow of ions (primarily sodium & calcium)

Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

141

Three components: the receptor, G protein that binds with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) & the effector (enzyme or ion channel)

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Systems

142

Site on the receptor at which the drug binds

Ligand-Binding Domain

143

Receptors found in cell nucleus Activation through transcription factors is prolonged

Nuclear Receptors

144

Drugs that produce response

Agonists

145

Drugs that block a response

Antagonists

146

Affect various sites

Nonspecific Drugs

147

Affect various receptors

Nonselective Drugs

148

Estimates margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective (therapeutic) dose (ED) in 50% of people and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of people The closer the ratio is to 1, the greater the danger for toxicity

Therapeutic Index

149

Stimulation/Depression Replacement Inhibition/Killing of Organisms Irritation

Drug Actions

150

Therapeutic Window Level of drug between the minimum effective concentration (MEC) in the plasma for obtaining desired drug action & the maximum toxic concentration (toxic effect)

Therapeutic Range

151

Highest concentration of a drug in the plasma at a specific time Indicates rate of absorption

Peak Drug Levels

152

Lowest concentration of drug in the plasma at a specific time Indicates rate of elimination

Trough Drug Levels

153

Large initial dose given to achieve a rapid MEC when immediate response is desired

Loading Dose

154

Physiological effects not related to desired drug effects

Side Effects

155

Range of untoward effects of drugs that cause mild to severe side effects More severe than side effects & always undesirable

Adverse Reactions

156

Toxic effects When drug levels exceed therapeutic range

Toxicity

157

Scientific discipline of studying how the effect of drugs actions varies from a predicted drug response due to genetic or hereditary factors

Pharmacogenetics

158

Rapid decrease in response to the drug "Acute tolerance"

Tachyphylaxis

159

Decreased responsiveness to a drug over the course of therapy

Tolerance

160

Psychological benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of drug effect

Placebo Effect

161

Approves new drugs Develops bio markers & other scientific tools Streamlines clinical trials Ensures product safety

U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

162

Current 3 volume authoritative source for drug standards Annual publication with 2 supplements

United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USPS-NF)

163

Drugs with potential for abuse Described in 5 schedules

Controlled Substances

164

Drug name that describes it's chemical structure

Chemical Name

165

Drug's official, nonproprietary name

Generic Name

166

Drug name chosen by the drug company that is usually trademarked & owned by that company

Brand Name

167

U.S. sole legal drug enforcement agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Justice

Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)

168

Altered or modified action/effect of a drug as a result of interaction with one or multiple other drugs

Drug Interactions

169

Obtained without a prescription

Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs

170

Chemical or physical reaction that occurs among 2 or more drugs in vitro (outside the body)

Drug Incompatibility

171

Changes that occur in absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of a drug

Pharmacokinetic Interactions

172

Practice of checking serum drug levels Especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic range & highly protein bound drugs

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)

173

Interactions that result in additive, synergistic or antagonistic drug effects

Pharmacodynamic Interactions

174

Occurs when 2 drugs with similar actions are administered result in a sum of effects

Additive Effect

175

Occurs when 1 drug has a potentiate effect on another Clinical effect is substantially greater than the combined effect of the 2 drugs

Synergistic Effect

176

Occurs when 2 drugs given have opposite effects & cancel each other out

Antagonistic Effect

177

Nausea, GI upset, headache & dizziness

Common symptoms of drug-drug interaction

178

Food can increase, decrease or delay drug absorption Food can bind with drugs causing decreased or slower absorption Food may have impact on absorption of different dosage forms

Drug-Food Interactions

179

Abnormal plasma/serum electrolyte concentrations can affect certain drug therapies

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

180

Skin reaction caused by exposure to sunlight EX: sulfa drugs

Drug Induced Photosensitivity

181

"Excretion"...Process by which the body eliminates drugs...main route is the kidneys (urine)

Elimination

182

A wide margin of safety for drug use

High Therapeutic Index

183

A narrow margin of safety for drug use

Low Therapeutic Index

184

The study of the effects of chemical substances on living tissue. They study of drugs, their sources, nature & properties. The study of the body's reaction to drugs

Pharmacology

185

Any chemical substance that, when administered, produces a change in function of the body.

Drug

186

A symptom or circumstance that makes treatment with a drug or device unsafe or inappropriate.

Contraindication

187

A drug effect that is apparent only after several doses have been given. It is caused by excretion or metabolic degradation of only a fraction of each dose given.

Cumulative Effect

188

A policy in place for the patient's protection. It allows the patient to be informed, without coercion, about healthcare procedures.

Informed Consent

189

An annual compendium of information concerning drugs, primarily prescription and diagnostic products.

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

190

A collection of officially recognized drug names. Includes drugs of established usefulness.

United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USP-NF)

191

Causing abnormal development of the embryo

Teratogenic

192

Used for something other than what it has been approved for...EX: glucophage for weight loss

Off-Label Uses

193

Plants, Animals, Minerals & Synthetic

Four Sources of Drugs

194

Act that empowered the FDA to monitor & regulate the marketing & manufacturing of drugs

1938 Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act

195

Act that identified a schedule that showed the potential for abuse of drugs

1970 Controlled Substances Act

196

State laws regarding nursing practice

Nurse Practice Acts

197

A specialist who guides the physician in prescribing drugs (may be stationed on a patient care unit to assist physicians, nurses, and patients.)

Clinical Pharmacist

198

The study of of the effects of drugs on the body.

Pharmacotherapeutics

199

The study of the actions of drugs in relationship to time

Chronopharmacology

200

The study of drugs used to prohibit the growth & production of abnormal cells.

Chemotherapy

201

Giving the wrong drug or drug dose that results in the client's death

Misfeasance

202

Omitting a drug dose that results in the client's death.

Nonfeasance

203

Giving the correct drug but by the wrong route that results in the client's death.

Malfeasance

204

A drug with no medical use with very high abuse potential that may lead to severe dependence (EX: heroine, marijuana, LSD, STP, peyote, hashish)

Schedule I Drug

205

A drug with medical use but with high abuse potential that leads to severe physical or psychological dependence (EX: morphine, opium, methadone, secobarbital, codeine, amphetamines, cocaine, oxycodone)

Schedule II Drug

206

A drug with medical use with moderate to low physical abuse potential but high psychological abuse potential (EX: Empirin with codiene, Lortab, Fiorinal, Tylenol with codeine)

Schedule III Drug

207

A drug with medical use with limited physical or psychological dependence potential (EX: phenobarbital, Librium, Valium, Dalmane)

Schedule IV Drug

208

A drug with medical use with very limited phsycial or psychological dependence potential...may not require prescription (EX: Robitussin AC, Lomotil)

Schedule V Drug

209

a sealed glass container used to store single doses of liquid injectible drugs

Ampule

210

a glass container with rubber stoppers used to store liquid or powdered medication

Vial

211

single unit doses of parenteral medications to be used with specific injecting devices

Cartridge

212

liquid suspensions for lubrication that are applied by rubbing

Liniments

213

semisolid medications used for local protection or for transdermal systemic effect

Ointments

214

an oral preparation that dissolves in the mouth

Troche

215

The inclination a drug has for binding or attaching itself to a specific receptor site

Affinity

216

drugs which work by combining with cell enzymes because they resemble the usual substances acted on by the enzyme

Antimetabolites

217

the period in which a drug is being excreted from the body

Elimination

218

time when the effects of the drug are no longer evident in the body

Termination

219

an abnormal or peculiar response to a drug (EX: elderly patient stimulated rather than sedated by sleeping medications)

Idiosyncratic Response

220

relatively predictable adverse drug responses caused unintentionally by medical treatment (EX: GI ulceration from long term aspirin therapy)

Iatrogenic Response

221

a quickly developing tolerance to a drug given in rapid, repeated administrations (EX: using a topical nasal decongestant over just a few days can develop a blunted response)

Tachyphylaxis Response

222

results when the body cannot metabolize a dose of the drug before the next dose is given...this means the drug is being excreted more slowly than it is being absorbed

Cumulative Response

223

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is less than the sum of the two drugs acting separately

Antagonism

224

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is equal to the sum of the individual effects of the two drugs

Summation

225

occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the two drugs acting independently

Synergism

226

occurs when two drugs are given concurrently and one increases the effect of the other...the one doing the potentation doesn't have the intended therapeutic effect

Potentiation

227

occurs when two different drug molecules compete for protein binding sites in the blood

Competitive Antagonism

228

legislation reference to drug labels & increased control on drug safety

Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the 1938 Act

229

legislation act that accelerated review of new drugs, required drug companies to provide info on off-label drugs & offer advanced notices of plans to discontinue drugs

FDA Modernization Act of 1997