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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (19):
1

What is genetics?

the scientific study of how genes control the characteristics of plants and animals

2

What is animal breeding?

controlled propagation of domestic animals in order to improve desirable qualities

3

What is animal breeding (2nd defintition)

the process by which young animals, birds, etc., are produced by their parents. The activity of keeping and caring for animals or plants in order to produce more animals or plants of a particular kind.

4

Why sex?

Perpetuation of the species and genetic recombination

5

trait

an observable or measurable characteristic of an individual

6

phenotype

an observed category or measured level of performance for a trait in an individual

7

Genotype

the genetic make-up of an individual

8

equation

P=G+E

9

Environmental effects

are non-genetic factors that affect performance (phenotype)

10

Exs. of environmental effects

physical environment
fixed resources and management
economics

11

common physical environmental effectors of livestock phenotypes

temp., humidity, level of nutrition, disease exposure, hygiene, elevation, light exposure

12

fixed resources

size of farm, facilities, ability to grow supplemental feed, available labor

13

management

level of supplemental feeding, health care, culling rates

14

cost of inputs

feed, labor, supplies, interest rates

15

price of outputs

animals, meat, milk, eggs

16

interactions

components within animal systems will interact
ex. herd health program, pathogens, cost of vaccines, natural resistance to pathogen (genotype)

17

genotype by environment interaction

occur when the difference in performance between multiple genotypes changes from environment to environment.
From a breeding standpoint, the most revealing interaction.

18

seedstock producers

elite breeders and multipliers. traditionally purebreds (registered)

19

Commercial producers

Commondities (milk, meat, eggs, wool hides, etc.) for consumption.
Terminal crosses common.