Flashcards in CH. 8 Deck (20):

1

## Value (in animal breeding)

### Any measure applied to an individual as opposed to a pop. Exs. are phenotypic value, genotypic value, breeding value, and environmental effect,

2

## Population Measure

### Any measure applied to a population as opposed to an individual

3

## Population Parameter

### A true (as opposed to estimated) population measure. Exs. are true population means, variances, and standard deviation; true correlations between traits; and true heritabilities

4

## Sample Statistic

### An estimate of a population parameter

5

## Normal Distribution

### The statistical distribution that appears graphically as a symmetric, bell-shaped curve

6

## Mean

### an arithmetic average

7

## Variation (in most animal breeding applications)

### differences among individuals within a population

8

## Variance

### A mathematical measure of variation

9

## Standard Deviation

### a mathematical measure of variation that can be thought of as an avg. deviation from the mean. The square root of the variance

10

## Variable

### Any quantity that can take on different numerical values. All elements (except mean) of the genetic model for quantitative traits- P, BV, E, etc. are considered variables

11

## Covariation

###
How two traits or values vary together in a pop

12

## Covariance (cov(X,Y))

### the basic measure of covariation

13

## Correlation Coefficient

### A measure of the strength (consistency, reliability) of the relationship between two variables.

14

## Phenotypic Correlation

### A measure of the strength (consistency, reliability) of the relationship between performance in one trait and performance in another trait

15

## Genetic Correlation

### A measure of the strength (consistency, reliability) of the relationship between breeding values for one trait and breeding values for another trait

16

## Environmental Correlation

### A measure of the strength (consistency, reliability) of the relationship between environmental effects on one trait and environmental effects on another trait

17

## Regression Coefficient

### The expected or avg. change in one variable (Y) per unit change in another (X)

18

## True Values

### An unknown, underlying attribute that affects animal performance. Exs. include breeding value, progeny difference, gene combination value, producing ability, environmental effect, etc.

19

## Predicted Value

### A prediction of a true value. The most common predicted values are estimated breeding value, expected progeny difference, and most probable producing ability

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