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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (40):
1

Science of human development

The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time

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Scientific method

A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions

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Hypothesis

A specific prediction that can be tested

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Empirical data

Evidence that is based on observation, experience or days; not theoretical

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Replication

Repeating a study

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Nature

Traits, capacities and limitations that one inherits genetically from parents

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Nurture

Environmental influences

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Epigenetics

Study of how environmental factors affect genes and genetic expression

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Differential susceptibility (differential sensitivity)

The idea that people vary in how sensitive they are to particular experiences

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Life-span perspective

An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life

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Critical period

A time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen for normal development to occur

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Sensitive period

A time when a certain type of development is most likely but it can still happen at a later time with more difficulty

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Ecological-systems approach

Bronfenbrenner's perspective on human development that considers all the influences from the various contexts of development (family, school, politics)

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Cohort

People born within the same historical period

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Socioeconomic status

A person's position in society as determined by income, occupation, education and place of residence

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Culture

A system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors and expectations that persists over time

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Social construction

An idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality

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Difference-equals-deficit error

The mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that are more typical

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Ethnic group

People whose ancestors were born in the same region and often share a language, culture and religion

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Race

A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups in the basis of physical appearance, skin color

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Dynamic-systems approach

A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical, cognitive and psychosocial influences

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Developmental theory

A group of ideas that interpret 1000s of observations about human growth

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Psychoanalytic theory

A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior (Freud)

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Behaviorism

Studies observable behavior

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Conditioning

Process by which responses become linked to a particular stimuli and learning takes place

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Operant conditioning

Action followed by a response (good or bad)

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Social learning theory

Influence others have over a person's behavior

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Cognitive theory

Changes in how people think over time

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Humanism

Theory that stresses the potential of all humans

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Scientific observation

Testing hypothesis by watching and recording participants' behavior

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Experiment

You know what this is

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Independent variable

Variable introduced

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Dependent variable

Change as a result of independent variable

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Survey

Info is collected

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Cross-sectional research

Compares groups of people who differ in age but similar in other characteristics

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Longitudinal research

Same individuals studied over time

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Cross-sequential research

Researchers study groups of people of different ages then follow these groups over the years

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Correlation

Relationship between two variables

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Quantitative

Numbers

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Qualitative

Description