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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (38):
1

The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes

Behaviorism

2

Historically important perspective that emphasized human growth potential

Humanistic psychology

3

The study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems

Cognitive psychology

4

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

Cognitive neuroscience

5

The science of behavior and mental processes

Psychology

6

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions

Critical thinking

7

An approach that integrates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints

Biopsychosocial approach

8

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and handed down from one generation to the next

Culture

9

The age-old controversy over the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors

Nature-nurture issue

10

The principle that our mind processes information at the same time on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

Dual processing

11

The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues to help individuals and communities to thrive

Positive psychology

12

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it

Hindsight bias

13

An explanation using principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events

Theory

14

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hypothesis

15

A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study

Operational definition

16

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced

Replication

17

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

Case study

18

A descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation

Naturalistic observation

19

A descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of that group

Survey

20

All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

Population

21

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

Random sample

22

A measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other

Correlation

23

A method in which researchers vary one or more factors (ind. variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dep. variable)

Experiment

24

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing any preexisting differences between the groups

Random assignment

25

In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

Experimental group

26

In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment

Control group

27

An inactive substance or condition that is sometimes given to those in a control group in place of the treatment given to the experimental group

Placebo

28

In an experiment, a procedure in which both the participants and the research staff are ignorant about who has received the treatment or the placebo

Double-blind procedure

29

Results caused by expectations alone

Placebo effect

30

In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

Independent variable

31

A factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study’s results

Confounding variable

32

In an experiment, the factor that is measured

Dependent variable

33

Giving people enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate

Informed consent

34

After an experiment ends, explaining to participants the study’s purpose and any deceptions researchers used

Debriefing

35

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

Testing effect

36

A study method incorporating 5 steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

SQ3R

37

Any action that can be observed and recorded

Behavior

38

Internal states that are inferred from behavior

Mental processes