Ch. 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Deck (32):
1

In psychology, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

Sex

2

In psychology, the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women

Gender

3

Any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally

Aggression

4

An act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing

Relational aggression

5

The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females typically have two, males typically have one

X chromosome

6

The sex chromosome typically found only in males

Y chromosome

7

The most important male sex hormone. Both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

Testosterone

8

The period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes capable of reproducing

Puberty

9

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

Primary sex characteristics

10

Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

Secondary sex characteristics

11

First ejaculation

Spermarche

12

First menstrual period

Menarche

13

A condition present at birth; possessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes

Intersex

14

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

Role

15

A set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females

Gender role

16

Our sense of being male, female, or some combination of the two

Gender identity

17

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

Social learning theory

18

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

Gender typing

19

Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

Androgyny

20

An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

Transgender

21

Having no sexual attraction to others

Asexual

22

Sex hormones, such as estradiol, that contribute to female sex characteristics and are secreted in greater amounts by females than males

Estrogens

23

The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

Sexual response cycle

24

In human sexuality, a resting pause that occurs after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

Refractory period

25

A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

Sexual dysfunction

26

Inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis

Erectile disorder

27

Distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm

Female orgasmic disorder

28

A life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

29

Culturally molded guide for how to act in various situations

Social script

30

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of one’s own sex, the other sex, or both sexes

Sexual orientation

31

The study of how our behavior and mind have changed in adaptive ways over time due to natural selection

Evolutionary psychology

32

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, the ones most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations are those that increase the organism’s chance of surviving nd reproducing in its environment

Natural selection