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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (77):
1

The brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

Plasticity

2

The scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes

Biological psychology

3

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

Cognitive neuroscience

4

A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nevous system

Neuron

5

Neuron extensions that receive messages and conduct them toward the cell body

Dendrites

6

The neuron extension that sends messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands

Axon

7

A nerve impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

Action potential

8

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory

Glial cells (glia)

9

The junction between the axon tip of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron

Synapse

10

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Threshold

11

In neural processing, a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired

Refractory period

12

A neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing

All-or-none response

13

Neuron-produced chemicals that cross the synaptic gap to carry messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands

Neurotransmitter

14

A neurotransmitter’s reabsorbtion by the sending neuron

Reuptake

15

A chemical, such as opium, morphine, or heroin, that depresses neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

Opiate

16

“Morphine within” - natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure

Endorphins

17

The body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems

Nervous system

18

Composed of the brain and spinal chord

Central nervous system (CNS)

19

The sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

20

Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

Nerves

21

Neuron that carries incoming information from the body’s tissues and sensory receptors to the brain and spinal chord

Sensory neuron

22

Neuron that carries outgoing information from the brain and spinal chord to the muscles and glands

Motor neuron

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Neurons within the brain and spinal chord; communicate internally and process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs

Interneuron

24

Peripheral nervous system division that controls the body’s skeletal muscles

Somatic nervous system

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Peripheral nervous system division that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

Autonomic nervous system

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Autonomic nervous system subdivision that arouses the body, mobilizing it’s energy

Sympathetic nervous system

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Autonomic nervous system subdivision that calms the body, conserving its energy

Parasympathetic nervous system

28

A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

Reflex

29

The body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Endocrine system

30

Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Hormones

31

A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress

Adrenal glands

32

The most influential endocrine gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

Pituitary gland

33

A device that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to record waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface

EEG (electroencephalograph)

34

A view of brain activity showing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET scan

35

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Shows brain anatomy

MRI

36

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Shows brain function

fMRI

37

The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull

Brainstem

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The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

Medulla

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The brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; directs sensory messages to the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Thalamus

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Nerve network running through the brainstem and into the thalamus; plays an important part in controlling arousal

Reticular formation

41

The “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory

Cerebellum

42

Neural system (including the amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

Limbic system

43

Two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

Amygdala

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A neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

Hypothalamus

45

A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process for storage explicit (conscious) memories of facts and events

Hippocampus

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A thin layer of interconnected neurons covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center

Cerebral cortex

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The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

Frontal lobes

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The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

Parietal lobes

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The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

Occipital lobes

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The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes areas that receive information from the ears

Temporal lobes

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The cerebral cortex area at the rear of the frontal lobes; controls voluntary movements

Motor cortex

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The cerebral cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes; registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

Somatosensory cortex

53

A false sensory experience, such as hearing something in the absence of an external auditory stimulus

Hallucination

54

Cerebral cortex areas involved primarily in higher mental functions, such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

Association areas

55

The formation of new neurons

Neurogenesis

56

A large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Corpus callosum

57

A condition in which the brain’s two hemispheres have been isolated by surgery that cut the fibers connecting them

Split brain

58

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Consciousness

59

The processing of one aspect of a problem at a time; used when we focus attention on new or complex tasks

Sequential processing

60

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s neural mode of information processing for many functions

Parallel processing

61

Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

Selective attention

62

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Inattentional blindness

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Failing to notice changes in the environment

Change blindness

64

Our internal biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

Circadian rhythm

65

Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. The muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active

REM sleep

66

Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

Alpha waves

67

A periodic, natural loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma

Sleep

68

Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

Delta waves

69

A pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the, it adjusts melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

70

Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

Insomnia

71

A sleep disorder in which a person has uncontrollable sleep attacks, sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep

Narcolepsy

72

A sleep disorder in which a sleeping person repeatedly stops breathing until blood oxygen is so low the person awakens just long enough to draw a breath

Sleep apnea

73

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind

Dream

74

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

Manifest content

75

According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

Latent content

76

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

REM rebound

77

Part of the brainstem that helps coordinate movement and control sleep

Pons