ch. 1 and 2 of schultz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch. 1 and 2 of schultz Deck (53):
1

What is the paradox of psychology?

It is a 2500 year old discipline
And it is a new discipline beginning 200 yrs ago

2

What are the rationals of studying psychology?

distinct from natural sciences
recognizes diversity
provides a framework for solidarity
emphasizes the relationships that make the whole cohesive
integrates topics and issues within modern psych
is interesting in its own right

3

What are the complications in gathering accurate historical data?

lost
suppressed
altered
distorted
self-serving

4

the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the idea of unique individuals

personalistic theory

5

the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others

naturalistic theory

6

what are the contextual forces of psychology?

zeitgeist, economic opportunity, war, prejudice

7

What was the role of war developing psychology?

Gave more opportunities to psychologists and developed more in psychological studies such as PTSD, the Milton studies

8

Father of Psychology
Influenced by the Spirit of Times
Nobody liked his ideas

Wundt and his establishment of psychology

9

All natural processes are mechanically determined and can be explained by the laws of physics and chemistry

Mechanism

10

acts are caused by past events

Determinism

11

phenomena can be explained by reduction to their basic components

Reductionism

12

pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience
(our thoughts come from ourselves and our experiences)

Empiricism

13

the doctrine that considers the facts of the universe and to be sufficiently explained in physical forms by the exitence and nature of matter (our thoughts can be explained and broken down by science/physics)

Materialism

14

the doctrine that only natural phenomena or facts are objectively observable

Positivism

15

had life changing dreams
said that the spirit of truth convinced him that mathematical principles can be applied to all sciences and produces certainty of knowledge

Renee Descartes

16

what did descartes contribute to psychology?

says that the mind and body have a mutual interaction
shifted the methods of intellectuals from metaphysical to the study of mind and mental processes

17

Why is the body matter?

the laws of physics and mechanics that accounts for movement and action in the physical world must apply to the body

18

Why is the body an automaton?

the nerves are pipes and the organs are engines

19

idea that an external object can bring about an involuntary response

Reflex action theory

20

"Human behavior is predictable, if input is known"
""Body is mechanistic, thought is Christian"

Renee Descartes

21

Carnicna (pineal gland)

point of interaction in brain

22

derived ideas from external experiences
innate ideas
has to have a sensory

Doctrine of idea

23

says all knowledge is empirically derived
mine is a tabula rasa
influenced behaviorism

John Locke

24

input from external physical objects experienced as sense impressions

sensation

25

mind operates on the sense impression to produce ideas and the recollection of these past senesory impressions

reflection

26

cannot be analyzed or reduced to simpler ideas

Simple ideas

27

complex ideas

can be analyzed or reduced

28

theory of association

association=learning

29

primary qualities

objective, exist independently of being (things that just are)

30

secondary qualities

subjective, exist in experience of object (how you experience things)

31

Perception is the only reality
God is the permanent perceiver
Perception as subjective, experience does not mirror external reality

George Berkeley

32

Mentalist
Argued that God is not a pernament perceiver
The world isn't real
Created Law of Association

David Hume

33

doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person

Mentalism

34

mental content

made up of impressions and ideas

35

impressions

like sensations; impressions of the mind

36

ideas

image of an impression

37

may look simple or complex but creates something new; based on connection of ideas (creates new ideas from an idea)

Law of association

38

created association of contiguity
more ideas are connected/together
basis for social psych
law of association by repetition
sees nerves as vibrations
First to use Law of association

David Hartley

39

association by contiguity

ideas or sensations that occur together are connected

40

notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more reasily they willbe associated

Law of association by repetition

41

Pushes away religion and focuses more on science
Mind is a machine
Extremely mechanistic

James Mill

42

treated like shit
child prodigy but clinically depressed by 21
created creative synthesis against his dad
it is possible to study mind scientifically
developed mental chemistry and ethology

John Stuart

43

creative synthesis

complex ideax are more than the sums of simple ideas

44

mental chemistry

thoughts are more than the sum of their own, they take their own quality

45

ethology

study of human personality

46

what was the 17th-19th century zeitgeist?

mechanism

47

What does mechanism imply

every physical effect follows from a direct cause

48

"The universe is a clock and God is the mathematician"

Newton

49

What is the metaphor for mechanism; a model of the universe>

clock

50

Automata

mechanical devices bulty to imitate human and animal movement

51

Automatas implies..

experimental and qualitative methods of physics can be applied to the study of human nature

52

1748, reported a hallucination from a dream where humans are machines

Julien de la Mattrie

53

Who invented the calculating engine and what was his significance?

Charles Babbage; he created the first artificial intelligence