Flashcards in ch. 1 and 2 of schultz Deck (53):
What is the paradox of psychology?
It is a 2500 year old discipline
And it is a new discipline beginning 200 yrs ago
What are the rationals of studying psychology?
distinct from natural sciences
provides a framework for solidarity
emphasizes the relationships that make the whole cohesive
integrates topics and issues within modern psych
is interesting in its own right
What are the complications in gathering accurate historical data?
the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the idea of unique individuals
the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others
what are the contextual forces of psychology?
zeitgeist, economic opportunity, war, prejudice
What was the role of war developing psychology?
Gave more opportunities to psychologists and developed more in psychological studies such as PTSD, the Milton studies
Father of Psychology
Influenced by the Spirit of Times
Nobody liked his ideas
Wundt and his establishment of psychology
All natural processes are mechanically determined and can be explained by the laws of physics and chemistry
acts are caused by past events
phenomena can be explained by reduction to their basic components
pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience
(our thoughts come from ourselves and our experiences)
the doctrine that considers the facts of the universe and to be sufficiently explained in physical forms by the exitence and nature of matter (our thoughts can be explained and broken down by science/physics)
the doctrine that only natural phenomena or facts are objectively observable
had life changing dreams
said that the spirit of truth convinced him that mathematical principles can be applied to all sciences and produces certainty of knowledge
what did descartes contribute to psychology?
says that the mind and body have a mutual interaction
shifted the methods of intellectuals from metaphysical to the study of mind and mental processes
Why is the body matter?
the laws of physics and mechanics that accounts for movement and action in the physical world must apply to the body
Why is the body an automaton?
the nerves are pipes and the organs are engines
idea that an external object can bring about an involuntary response
Reflex action theory
"Human behavior is predictable, if input is known"
""Body is mechanistic, thought is Christian"
Carnicna (pineal gland)
point of interaction in brain
derived ideas from external experiences
has to have a sensory
Doctrine of idea
says all knowledge is empirically derived
mine is a tabula rasa
input from external physical objects experienced as sense impressions
mind operates on the sense impression to produce ideas and the recollection of these past senesory impressions
cannot be analyzed or reduced to simpler ideas
can be analyzed or reduced
theory of association
objective, exist independently of being (things that just are)
subjective, exist in experience of object (how you experience things)
Perception is the only reality
God is the permanent perceiver
Perception as subjective, experience does not mirror external reality
Argued that God is not a pernament perceiver
The world isn't real
Created Law of Association
doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person
made up of impressions and ideas
like sensations; impressions of the mind
image of an impression
may look simple or complex but creates something new; based on connection of ideas (creates new ideas from an idea)
Law of association
created association of contiguity
more ideas are connected/together
basis for social psych
law of association by repetition
sees nerves as vibrations
First to use Law of association
association by contiguity
ideas or sensations that occur together are connected
notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more reasily they willbe associated
Law of association by repetition
Pushes away religion and focuses more on science
Mind is a machine
treated like shit
child prodigy but clinically depressed by 21
created creative synthesis against his dad
it is possible to study mind scientifically
developed mental chemistry and ethology
complex ideax are more than the sums of simple ideas
thoughts are more than the sum of their own, they take their own quality
study of human personality
what was the 17th-19th century zeitgeist?
What does mechanism imply
every physical effect follows from a direct cause
"The universe is a clock and God is the mathematician"
What is the metaphor for mechanism; a model of the universe>
mechanical devices bulty to imitate human and animal movement
experimental and qualitative methods of physics can be applied to the study of human nature
1748, reported a hallucination from a dream where humans are machines
Julien de la Mattrie