Ch. 1 Introduction to Human Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Introduction to Human Development Deck (46)
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What is Human Development?

The scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality.


What is Empiricism?

The view that humans possess no innate tendencies and that all differences among humans are attributable to experience.


What is the blank state?

A view which suggests that adults can mold children into whatever they want them to be.


What is innate goodness?

A view in which all human beings are naturally good and seek out experiences that help them grow.


What are norms?

Average ages at which developmental milestones are reached.


What is maturation?

The gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change.


What are norm-referenced tests?

Standardized tests that compare an individual child's score to the average score of others her age.


What is the lifespan perspective?

The current view of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire human lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary research is critical to understanding human development.


What is Plasticity?

Individuals of all ages possess the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands.


What is Interdisciplinary Research?

Research from different kinds of of disciplinary perspectives is needed to fully understand lifespan development.


What is the Multi-contextual Nature of Development?

Individual development occurs within several interrelated contexts.


What is Physical Domain?

Changes in the size, shape, and characteristics of the body.


What is the Cognitive Domain?

Changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills.


What is the Social Domain?

Change in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others.


What is the Nature-Nurture Debate?

The debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development.


What is Quantitative Change?

A change in amount.


What is Qualitative Change?

A change in kind or type.


What are Stages?

Qualitatively distinct periods of development.


What are Normative Age-Graded Changes?

Changes that are common to every member of a species.


What is a Social Clock?

A set of age norms defining a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow.


What is Ageism?

A prejudicial view of older adults that characterizes them in negative ways.


What are Normative History-Graded Changes?

Changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period.


What are Normative Changes?

Changes that result from unique, unshared events.


What is the Critical Period?

A specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence (or absence) of some particular kind of experience.


What is a Cohort?

A way to describe a group of individuals who are born within some fairly narrow span of years and thus share the same historical experiences at the same time in their lives.


What is the Sensitive Period?

A span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.


What is Atypical Development?

Development that deviates from the typical developmental pathway in a direction harmful to the individual.


What is Naturalistic Observation?

The process of studying people in their normal environments.


What is Case Study?

An in-depth examination of a single individual.


What is Laboratory Observation?

Observation of behavior under controlled conditions.