Flashcards in Ch. 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy Deck (27)
What is the Sensorimotor Stage?
Piaget's first stage of development, in which infants use information from their senses and motor actions to learn about the world.
What are Primary Circulation Reactions?
Piaget's phrase to describe a baby's simple repetitive actions in substage 2 of the sensorimotor stage, organized around the the baby's own body.
What are Secondary Circular Reactions?
Repetitive actions in substage 3 of the sensorimotor period, oriented around external objects.
What are Means-End Behavior?
Purposeful behavior carried out in pursuit of a specific goal.
What are Tertiary Circular Reactions?
The deliberate experimentation with variations of previous actions that occurs in substage 5 of the sensorimotor period.
What is Object Permanence?
The understanding that objects continue to exist when they can't be seen.
What is A-not-B Error?
Substage 4 infant's tendency to look for an object in the place where it was last seen (position A) rather then in the place to which they have seen a researcher move it (position B).
What is Deferred Imitation?
Imitation that occurs in the absence of the model who first demonstrated it.
What is Object Concept?
An infant's understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave.
What is the Violation-of Expectations-Method?
A research strategy in which researchers move an object in one way after having taught an infant to expect it to move in another.
What is Schematic Learning?
Organization of experiences into expectancies, called schemas, which enable infants to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli.
What is an Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?
An innate language processor, theorized by Chomsky, that contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language.
Who are Interationists?
Theorists who argue that language development is a subprocess of general cognitive development and is influenced by both internal and external factors.
What is Infant-Directed Speech?
The simplified, higher-pitched speech that adults use with infants and young children.
What is Cooing?
Making repetitive vowel sounds, particularly the uuu sound.
What is Babbling?
The repetitive vocalizing of consonant-vowel combinations by an infant.
What is Receptive Language?
Comprehension of spoken language.
What is Expressive Language?
The ability to use sounds, signs, or symbols, to communicate meaning.
What is Holophrases?
Combinations of gestures and single words that convey more meaning than just the word alone.
What is Naming Explosion?
The period when toddlers experience rapid vocabulary growth, typically beginning between 16 and 24 months.
What is Telegraphic Speech?
Simple two-word sentences that usually include a noun and a verb.
What are Infections?
Additions to words that change their meaning.
What is the Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)?
The average number of meaningful units in a sentence.
What is Expressive Style?
A style of word learning characterized by low rates of noun like terms and high use of personal-social words and phrases.
Wha is Referential Style?
A style of word learning characterized by emphasis on things and people and their naming and description.
What is Intelligence?
The ability to take in information and use it to adapt to the environment.