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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Theories of Development Deck (30)
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What are Psychoanalytic Theories?

Theories proposing that developmental change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior.


What is ID?

In Freud's theory, the part of the personality that comprises a person's basic sexual and aggressive impulses; it contains the libido and motivates a person to seek pleasure and avoid pain.


What is Ego?

According to Freud, the thinking element of personality.


What is a Superego?

Freud's term for the part of personality that is the moral judge.


What are Psychosexual Stages?

Freud's five stages of personality development through which children move in a fixed sequence determined by maturation; the libido is centered in a different body part in each stage.


What are the Psychosocial Stages?

Erikson's eight stages, or crises, of personality development in which inner instincts interact with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality.


What is Behaviorism?

The view that defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences.


What are Learning Theories?

Theories asserting that developmental results from an accumulation of experiences.


What is Classical Conditioning?

Learning that results from the association of stimuli.


What is Operant Conditioning?

Learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of their consequences.


What is Reinforcement?

Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to be repeated.


What is Punishment?

Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to stop.


What is Extinction?

The gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement.


What is Observational Learning or Modeling?

Learning that results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for a behavior.


What is Positive Reinforcement?

A consequence usually involving something pleasant that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again.


What is Negative Reinforcement?

Occurs when an individual learns to perform a specific behavior in order to cause something unpleasant to stop.


What is Partial Reinforcement?

Reinforcement of a behavior on some occasions but not others.


What are Cognitive Theories?

Theories that emphasize mental processes in development, such as logic and memory.


What is a Scheme?

In Piaget's theory, an internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a procedure to use in a specific circumstnace.


What is Assimilation?

The process of using a scheme to make sense of of an event or experience.


What is Accomodation?

Changing a scheme as a result of some new information.


What is Equilibration?

The process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the environment.


What is the Sociocultural Theory?

Vgotsky's view that complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions rather than in an individual's private explorations.


What is the Information-Processing Theory?

A theoretical perspective that uses the computer as a model to explain how the mind manages information.


What is the Neo-Piagetian Theory?

An approach that uses information-processing principles to explain the developmental stages identified by Piaget.


What is Behavioral Genetics?

The study of the role of heredity in individual differences.


What is Ethology?

A perspective on development that emphasizes genetically determined survival behaviors presumed to have evolved through natural selection.


What is Sociobiology?

The study of society using the methods and concepts of biology; when used by developmentalists, an approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival.


What is the Bio ecological Theory?

Brofenbrenner's theory that explains development in terms of relationships between individuals and their environments, or interconnected contexts.


What is Electicism?

The use of multiple theoretical perspectives to explain and study human development.