Flashcards in Ch.4 Physical, Sensory, and Perceptual Development in Infancy Deck (39)
What are Synapses?
Connections between neurons.
What is Synaptogenesis?
The process of synapse development.
What is Pruning?
The process of eliminating unused synapses.
What is Plasticity?
The ability of the brain to change in response to experience.
What is Myelenization?
A process in neuronal development in which sheaths made of a substance called myelin gradually cover individual axons and electrically insulate them from one another to improve the conductivity of the nerve.
What is Reticular Formation?
The part of the brain that regulates attention.
What are Adaptive Reflexes?
Reflexes, such as sucking, that help newborns survive.
What are Primitive Reflexes?
Reflexes, controlled by "primitive" parts of the brain, that disappear during the first year of life.
What are Circadian Rhythms in regard to babies?
The neurological systems that synchronize their bodily functions with light/dark cycle of the world outside the womb.
What is Colic?
An infant behavior pattern involving intense daily bouts of crying totaling 3 or more hours a day.
What is the Cephalocaudal Pattern?
The physical development that proceeds from the head downward.
What is the Proximodistal Pattern?
The physical development from the center of the body outward.
What are Gross Motor Skills?
Include abilities such as crawling that enable the infant to get around in the environment.
What are Fine Motor Skills?
Involve use of hands, as when a 1 year old stacks blocks on top of another.
What is the Stepping Reflex?
The tendency for very young infants to attempt to take steps when they are placed in an upright position with their feet touching a flat surface.
What is the Dynamic Systems Theory?
The view that several factors interact to influence development.
What is Macronutrient Malnutrition?
Results from a diet that contains too few calories. Macronutrient Malnutrition is the world's leading cause of death among children under the age of 5.
What is Marasmus?
Occurs when the calorie deficit is severe. Infants with Marasmus weigh less than 60% of what they should at their age, and many suffer from permanent neurological damage from disease.
What is Kwashiorkor?
A disease which results from not having enough protein in the diet. Can lead to a variety of health problems as well as permanent brain damage.
What is Micronutrient Malnutrition?
A deficiency of certain vitamins and/or minerals.
What is Iron-Deficiency Anemia?
A disease which can result from Micronutrient Malnutrition.
What is Infant Mortality?
Death within the first year of life.
What is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?
A phenomenon in which an apparently healthy infant dies suddenly and unexpectedly.
What is Apnea?
Brief periods when an infants breathing suddenly stops-are more likely to die from SIDS.
What is the Back to Sleep Campaign?
Campaign in which public health officials used informative materials to educate parents about the need to place infants on their backs rather that on their stomachs to sleep.
What is Visual Acuity?
How well one can see details at a distance.
What is Tracking?
The smooth movements of the eye used to follow the track of a moving object.
What is Auditory Acuity?
How well one can hear?
What is Auditory Acuity?
How well one can hear.