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Flashcards in Ch 10 Deck (42):
1

Photophosphorylation

the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of light energy; a part of photosynthesis; animals, fungi and nonchlorophyllus pigments cannot perform

2

Substrate level phosphorylation

the formation of ATP and ADP by having a phosphate group transferred to it from a substrate molecule; what animals and fungi do instead of photophosphorylation

3

Oxidative phosphorylation

the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, powered by energy released through respiration

4

Oxidize

to raise the oxidation state of a molecule by removing an electron from it; an atom that does not carry as many electrons as it could

5

Reduce

to lower the oxidation state of a molecule by adding an electron to it; when electrons are added to an atom

6

Oxidizing agent

an electron carrier that is not carrying electrons

7

Reducing Agent

an electron carrier that is carrying electrons

8

Redox potential

the tendency of a molecule to accept or donate electrons during a chemical reaction

9

Electron carrier NADP+

take electrons away from other molecules so it is an oxidizing agent

10

Electromagnetic spectrum

includes gamma rays, x-rays, UV light, infrared light, mocrowaves and radio waves in addition to visible light

11

Photons (quanta)

set of particles; or set of waves

12

Pigment

any material that absorbs certain wavelengths specifically and has disctinctive color

13

Chlorophyll a

absorbs only some red and some blue light

14

Chlorophyll b

.

15

Accessory Pigments

molecules that strongly absorb wavelengths not absorbed by chlorophyll a; broaden the action spectrum of photosynthesis by overcoming the narrow absorption of chlorophyll a

16

Ground State

an electron in its most stable orbital, when it contains the least amount of energy

17

Excited State

an electron that has absorbed a quantum and moved to a higher orbital; it has more energy than when it is in its ground state

18

Absorption spectrum

a graph of the relative ability of a pigment to absorb absorb different wavelengths of light

19

Action spectrum

a graph of the relative rates of reaction of a process as influenced by different wavelengths of light

20

Antenna complex with reaction center

.

21

Photosystem I

photosynthetic units with little chlorophyll b

22

Photosystem II

photosynthetic units with chlorophyll b levels almost equal to chlorophyll a

23

Photolysis

.

24

NADPH+ Reductase

.

25

Chloroplast grana

a set of flat vesicles in chloroplasts, involved in chemiosmotic phosphorylation

26

Stroma

the liquid surrounding the thylakoid system

27

Thylakoid lumen

the photosynthetic membranes of chloroplast

28

Noncyclic electron transport

the flow of electrons from water to NADPH during light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

29

Cyclic electron transport

the flow of electrons from P700 back to plastoquinone in photosynthesis, such that there is proton pumping but no synthesis of NADPH

30

C3 metabolism (Calvin cycle)

a set of metabolic reactions in which carbon dioxide is fixed temporarily into organic acids that are transported to bundle sheaths, where they release the carbon dioxide and C3 photosynthesis occurs

31

C3 metabolism (Calvin cycle)

.

32

PGAL

.

33

PGAL

3-phosphoglyceraldehyde

34

Gluconeogenesis

formation of glucose from 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde

35

Quality of sunlight

the colors or wavelengths it contains; sunlight is pure white because it contains the entire visible spectrum

36

Quantity of light

refers to light intensity or brightness affected by clouds, shading, closeness to the equator

37

Duration

the number of hours per day that sunlight is available

38

Light compensation point

the level of illumination at which photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide just matches respiratory loss

39

C4 Metabolism

a set of metabolic reactions in which carbon dioxide is fixed temporarily into organic acids that are transported to bundle sheaths, where they release the carbon dioxide and C3 photosynthesis occurs

40

Photorespiration

the oxidation of phosphoglycolate produced when RuBP carboxylase adds oxygen, not carbon dioxide, to RuBP

41

PEP carboxylase

.

42

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

a metabolism in which carbon dioxide is absorbed at night and fixed temporarily into organic acids. During daytime, the acids break down, carbon dioxide is released, and C3 photosynthesis