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Plant Biology > Ch 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 9 Deck (79):
1

Fragmentation

a large spreading or vining plant grows to several meters in length and individual parts become self-sufficient by establishing adventitious roots; if middle portions of the plant die, the ends become separated and act as individuals

2

Vegetative Reproduction

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Ramets

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Genets

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Apomixis

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Sperm and eggs

sex cells called gametes

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Zygote

one sperm and one egg come together and the diploid cell which is the fertilized cell

8

Embryo

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9

Adult sporophyte

a diploid plant that produces spores

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Spores

a single cell that is a means of asexual reproduction; it can grow into a new organism but cannot fuse like a gamete

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Gametophyte

a haploid plant that produces gametes

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Complete Flowers

a flower having sepals, petals, stamens and carpels

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Incomplete flower

a flower that is missing one or more of the four basic appendages (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels or any combination)

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Pedicel

the stalk of an individual flower

15

Receptacle

the stem (axis) of a flower, to which all the other are attached

16

Sepals

in flowers, the outermost of the fundamental appendages, most often providing protection of the flower during its development

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Calyx

collective term for all the sepals of one flower

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Petals

the appendages, usually colored on a flower, most often involved in attracting pollinators

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Corolla

a collective term for all the petals of a single flower

20

Stamens

the organs of a flower involved in producing microspores (pollen)

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Filament

the stalk of a stamen, it elevates the anther

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Anther

the portion of a stamen that contains sporogenous tissue which produces microspores (pollen)

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Carpel

organ of a flower that contains ovules and is involved in the production of megaspores, seeds and fruits

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Ovary

in a flower, the base of the carpel; the region that contains ovules and will develop into a fruit

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Style

in the carpel, the tissue that elevates the stigma above the ovary

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Stigma

in a carpel of a flower, the receptive tissue to which pollen adheres

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Androecium

a collective term referring to all the stamens of one flower

28

Microsporocytes

in a heterogeneous species, a cell that undergoes meiosis, resulting in the production of four microspores

29

Pollen

in seed plants, the microspores and microgametophytes

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Gynoecium

a collective term referring to all the carpels of a flower

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Placenta

tissue in the ovary of a carpel to which the ovules are attached

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Ovule

the structure in a carpel that contains megasporangium and will develop into a seed

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Nucellus

the megasporangium of an ovule

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Nucellus

the megasporangium of an ovule; central mass of parenchyma

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Integuments

in flowers, the covering layer over the nucellus of an ovule; usually an inner and outer integument is present; two thin sheets of cells that cover almost the entire nucellus surface

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Microgametophyte

a gametophyte that produces microgametes (sperms) only

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Vegetative cell

large cell; in the pollen grain of seed plants, the cell or cells that do not give rise to the sperm cells; the cell that is not the generative cell

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Generative cell

small lens-shaped; in the pollen grains of seed plants, the cell that gives rise directly to the sperm cells

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Pollen tube

after landing on a compatible stigma or gymnosperm megasporophyll, a pollen gran germinates with a tubelike process that carries the sperm cells to the vicinity of the egg cell

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Megagametophyte

a gametophyte that produces megagametes (eggs) only

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Embryo sac

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Embryo sac

a common synonym for the megagametophyte of flowering plants; eggs

43

Central cell with polar nuclei

in the megagametophyte in a flower's ovule, the cell that contains two nuclei (usually) and develops into endosperm after fertilization

44

Antipodals

one of several (usually three) cells in the angiosperm megagametophyte, located opposite the egg cell and the synergids

45

Egg with synergids

in the egg apparatus of an angiosperm megagametophyte, there is one egg and one or two adjacent cells, synergids; the pollen tube enters one of the synergids

46

Double Fertilization

the process unique to angiosperms in which one sperm fertilizes the egg (forming the zygote) and the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei (forming the primary endosperm nucleus)

47

Endosperm

the tissue, usually polyploid, which is formed during double fertilization only in angiosperms and which nourished the developing embryo and seedling

48

Cotyledons

in embryos of seed plants, the rather leaflike structures involved in either nutrient storage (most dicots and gymnosperms) or nutrient transfer from the endosperm (most monocots)

49

Radicle

main root of a seed; it is the direct continuation of the embryonic stem

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Epicotyl

in the embryo of a seed, the embryonic shoot, located above the cotyledons

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Hypocotyl

the portion of an embryo axis located between the cotyledons and the radicle

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Seed coat

the protective layer on a seed; the seed coat develops from one or both integuments

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Exocarp

outermost layer of the fruit wall; in fleshy fruits, the rind or peel

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Mesocarp

the middle layer of the fruit wall

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Endocarp

the innermost layer of the fruit wall, the pericarp

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Cross pollination

the pollination of a flower by pollen from a completely different plant

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Self pollination

the pollination of a flower by pollen from the same flower or another flower on the same plant

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Dichogamy

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59

Self incompatibility

chemical reactions between pollen and carpels that prevent pollen growth; incompatibility genes

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Monoecy

the condition in which a species has imperfect flowers (some staminate, others capellate) but both are located on the same sporophyte

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Dioecy

the condition in which a species has two types of sporophyte - one with stamens and one with carpels

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Coevolution

two species become increasingly adapted to each other, resulting in a highly specific interaction

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Pollination Syndromes

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64

Determinate Inflorescence

has a limited potential for growth because the inflorescence apex is converted to a flower, ending its possibilities for continued growth

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Indeterminate Inflorescence

the lowest or outermost flowers open first and even while these flowers are open, new flowers are still being initiated at the apex

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Coryumb

a flower cluster whose lower stalks are proportionally longer so that the flowers form a flat or slightly convex head

67

Cyme

a flower cluster with a central stem bearing a single terminal flower that develops first, the other flowers in the cluster developing as terminal buds of lateral stems

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Head

anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure

69

Panicle

a loose, branching cluster of flowers, as in oats

70

Raceme

a flower cluster with the separate flowers attached by short equal stalks at equal distances along a central stem. The flowers at the base of the central stem develop first

71

Spike

stalked flowers arranged singly along an elongated unbranched axis, with the flowers at the bottom opening first

72

Umbel

a flower cluster in which stalks of nearly equal length spring from a common center and form a flat or curved surface, characteristic of the parsley family

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True fruit

a fruit that developed only from carpel tissue, not containing any other tissue

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Accessory fruit

a fruit that contains nonovarian tissue

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Simple fruit

a fruit that develops from a single carpel or the fused carpels of a single flower

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Aggregate fruit

a fruit that develops from the crowding together of several separate carpels of one flower; ie raspberries

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Multiple fruit

a fruit formed by the crowding together of the individual fruits of an entire inflorescnce; ie figs and pineapples

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Dehiscent fruit

break open and release the seeds

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Indehiscent fruit

remaining closed at maturity, not opening; true of many fruits and the megasporangia of seed plants