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Flashcards in Ch 11 Deck (16):
1

Pyruvate

output of glycolysis; used as an electron receptor in anaerobic respiration; not "cheap" because of high energy electrons in bonding orbitals; could be used as a monomer for many types of synthesis

2

Acetyl CoA

coenzyme A and acetyl combination; acetyl is a two carbon fragment; used in many synthetic pathways

3

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide

4

CoA

coenzyme A; carrier molecule

5

FADH2

reduced version of FAD- flavin adenine dinucleotide

6

Cheiosmosis via ATP synthase

the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate using the energy of an osmotic gradient and a gradient of electrical charge; occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria; electrons are transported to electron transport chain

7

Total Energy Yield of Respiration

Anaerobic- 2 ATP
Aerobic- up to 38 ATP

8

Glycolysis

the metabolic pathway by which glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid

9

Fermentation

synonym for anaerobic respiration; respiration without oxygen

10

Beer

fermenting barley, wheat, corn or rice; must first convert starch to glucose by moistening the grain and allowing enzymes to break down the starch in the endosperm; all ingredients are a mash and warmed in a vault; solid materials are strained out; cooled and yeast is added to ferment; CO2 escapes during brewing

11

Wine

fermented fruit juices rich in sugars; grapes crushed to release juice; S. cerevisiae is added and mixture is cooled; CO2 escapes without O2 entering; during fermentation dead yeast cells and other particles settle on the bottom; fermentation continues as long as sugar is present

12

Spirits

ethanol content above 20%; ethanol added to solution or solution must be distilled; during distillation solution is heated and alcohol evaporates

13

Temperature

.

14

Lack of Oxygen

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15

Internal Regulation

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16

Respiration

process that breaks down complex carbon compounds into simpler molecules and simultaneously generates the ATP used to power other metabolic processes; basically the opposite of photosynthesis