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Flashcards in Ch 5 Deck (50):
1

Parenchyma

thin primary wall; alive at maturity; many functions; active metabolically; some involved in photosynthesis (chlorenchyma); some secrete nectar, fragrences and oils; some are transfer cells; some conduct nutrients over long distances (phloem)

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Collenchyma

unevenly thickened primary wall; usually thickened in the corners; alive at maturity; plastic support: can be deformed by pressure or tension; can be stretched; in elongating shoot tips

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Slerenchyma

primary wall and thickened secondary wall; walls are elastic: can be deformed and return to original shape; dead at maturity; elastic support and transport; two types conducting and mechanical

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Nodes

where leaves are attached

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internodes

regions between nodes

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Leaf axil

stem area just above the point where a leaf attaches

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Axillary bud

a minature shoot in the lead axil with a dormant apical meristem and several young leaves; either a vegetative bud (branch) or flower bud (flower or group of flowers)

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Bud scales

small, corky, waxy, modified leaves that covers the bud

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Terminal bud

a bud at the extreme tip of each stem

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Phyllotaxy

arrangement of leaves on the stem

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Alternate

one leaf present at each node

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Opposite

two leaves per node

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Whorled

three or more leaves per node

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Distichous

leaves are arranged in only two rows; ie corn and irises

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Decussate

leaves are arranged in four rows

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Spiral

each leaf is slightly to the side of the ones immediately above and below it and the leaves form a spiral up the steam (most common arrangement)

17

Stolons

an aerial stem with elongate internodes; it establishes plantlets periodically when it contacts soil; ie strawberry

18

Bulbs

a short, subterranean (concealed), vertical stem that has fleshy scalelike leaves; ie onion

19

Corms

subterranean, vertical stem that is thick and fleshy and has only thin papery leaves; ie gladiolus (flower)

20

Rhizomes

fleshy, horizontal, subterranean stem involved in allowing the plant to migrate laterally; ie bamboo and iris

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Tubers

short, fleshy, horizontal stem, involved in storing nutrients but not in migrating laterally; ie potato

22

Epidermis

the outermost layer of the plant primary body, covering leaves, flower parts, young stems and roots; made up of a single layer of living parenchyma cells

23

Cuticle

layer of cutin (fatty acid substance making water impermeable) on epidermal cells; restricts entry of carbon dioxide and water

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Wax

extremely hydrophobic; contributes to water containing capacity of epidermis

25

Stoma

can also mean "stomatal pore" (see def) and can also mean "stomatal complex" guard cells plus stomatal pore

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Guard Cells

pair of epidermal cells capable of adjusting their size and shape, causing the stomatal pore to open when they swell and close when they shrink

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Stomatal Pore

intracellular space between two guard cells; CO2 is absorbed through the pore and water is lost

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Trichomes

plant hair

29

Cortex

below the epidermis; between the epidermis and phloem in stems and roots; composed of photosynthetic parenchyma and sometimes collenchyma

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Vascular Xylem

the water and mineral conducting portion of vascular tissues, containing either tracheids or vessel elements or both

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Tracheids

a xylem conducting cell; type of sclerenchyma; tend to be long and tapered with no perforations

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Vessel Element

type of sclerenchyma; xylem conducting cell that has one or two perforations (complete hole in the primary wall that permits water to flow easily from one vessel to another)

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Vascular Phloem

distributes sugars and minerals

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Sieve Cells

phloem conducting cells in angiosperms; long and tapered

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Albuminous cells

nurse cell connected to and controlling a enucleate sieve cell in the gymnosperm phloem

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Sieve tube members

in the phloem of the angiosperms, a column of sieve tube members interconnected by large sieve areas and sieve pores

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Companion cells

nurse cell that is connected to and a sister cell to an enucleate sieve tube member

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Vascular Bundle

column of vascular tissue, typically both xylem and phloem together, but in leaves sometimes consisting of only one or the other

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Pith

region of parenchyma located in the center of most shoots and some roots, surrounded by vascular bundles

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Apical Meristem

a group of cells specialized for the production of new cells located at the farthest point of the tissue or organ produced

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Subapical Meristem

the region of a shoot or root just proximal to the apical meristem

42

Protoderm

any immature epidermal cell

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Provascular

cells in the primary plant body that later differentiate into xylem, phloem or vascular cambium

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Ground Meristem

any expanse of meristematic tissue that produces somewhat uniform mature tissue

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Primary Tissues

the tissues derived more or less directly from an apical meristem or leaf primordium; the tissues of the primary plant body

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Primary Growth

production of new cells by shoot and root apical meristems and leaf primordia

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Determinate Growth

growth that stops at a genetically predetermined size; typically of leaves and flowers but not of whole shoots and roots

48

Indeterminate Growth

growth not limited by a plant's own genetic development program; most trees have this

49

Determinate Organogenesis

number of organs is predetermined; humans

50

Indeterminate Organogenesis

number of organs is not written in the organism's genetic code; plants