Ch 11: endocrine glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11: endocrine glands Deck (170):
1

______ are ductless and secrete hormones into the blood.

Endocrine glands

2

Hormones are carried to ____ having receptors for those hormones.

Targets cells

3

What four organs to the endocrine glands secrete hormones?

Heart
Liver
Kidneys
Adipose tissue

4

Amines are derived from tyrosine and _____.

Tryptophan

5

Hormones from the adrenal medulla, thyroid, and pineal glands are all examples of what?

Amines

6

Antidiuretic hormone, insulin, and growth hormone are all examples of what?

Polypeptides and proteins

7

_____ are long polypeptides bound to carbohydrate.

Glycoproteins

8

Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones are examples of what?

Glycoproteins

9

____ are lipids derived from cholesterol.

Steroids

10

Testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol are all examples of what?

Steroids

11

_____ are secreted by adrenal cortex and gonads.

Steroids

12

_____ are water soluble, cannot pass through plasma membranes, and must be injected if used as a drug.

Polar hormones

13

_____ are insoluble in water, can enter target cells directly, include steroids and thyroid hormone, and can be taken orally in pill form.

Nonpolar hormones

14

Nonpolar hormones are often called _____ hormones.

Lipophilic

15

______ are inactive hormones that must be cut and spliced together to be active.

Prohormones

16

What is an example of a prohormone?

Insulin

17

______ are inactive hormones that must be modified within their target cells.

Prohormones

18

Hormones and neurotransmitters both interact with specific ____.

Receptors

19

Binding to a receptor causes a change with the _____.

Cell

20

A ______ is usually responsive to several different hormones.

Target cell

21

_____ may be antagonistic, synergistic, or permissive.

Hormones

22

How a cell responds depends on the amount of ____ and the combination of all hormones.

Hormone

23

______ occur when two or more hormones work together to produce a particular effect.

Synergistic Effect

24

Synergistic effects may be addictive, as when epinephrine and norepinephrine each affect the ____ in the same way.

Heart

25

Producing milk requires estrogen, prolactin, and oxytocin are all examples of what?

Synergistic Effects

26

______ occurs when one hormone makes the target cell more responsive to a second hormone.

Permissive Effects

27

Exposure to estrogen makes the ____ more responsive to progesterone.

Uterus

28

______ occurs when hormones work in opposite directions.

Antagonistic Effects

29

Insulin and glycogen both affect _______.

Adipose tissue

30

______ stimulates fat storage, while _____ stimulates fat breakdown.

Insulin
Glucagon

31

The half-life of hormones circulating in the blood ranges from ____ to _____.

Minutes
Hours

32

Most hormones are removed from the body by the _____.

Liver

33

______ hormone circulates for several days.

Thyroid

34

Tissues only respond when hormone concentrations are at a certain _____ level.

Normal

35

At a _____ pharmacological concentrations, effects may be different than normal.

Higher

36

Some target cells respond to a particular hormone by _____ the number of receptors it has for that hormone.

Increasing

37

Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of hormone may result in a _____ number of receptors for that hormone.

Decreased

38

To avoid desensitization, many hormones are released in spurts called _______.

Pulsatile secretion

39

Hormones bind to receptors on or in _____.

Target cells

40

Hormones bind to receptors with a high ______ (strength).

Affinity

41

Hormones bind to receptors with a low _____ (saturation).

Capacity

42

Hormones that bind to receptors in the nucleus are _____ steroid hormones and _____ hormone.

Lipophilic
Thyroid

43

Receptors are found within the nucleus and are called _____.

Nuclear hormone receptors

44

Theses hormones activate genetic transcription by serving as ________.

Transcription factors

45

The effect of these hormones is therefore to produce new _____, usually enzymes that change metabolism inside the cell. "Game Changers".

Proteins

46

What are two regions of the nuclear hormone receptors?

Ligand (hormone)- binding domain
DNA-binding domain

47

Binding of the hormone activates the ________, and it binds to a hormone response element on the DNA.

DNA-binding domain

48

Modern science has identified many "orphan" receptors without a known ____.

Ligand

49

Steroid hormone actions receptors are located in the _____.

Cytoplasm

50

After the steroid hormone actions bind, they translocate to the nucleus and bind to ____.

DNA

51

____ are needed in addition to the steroid hormone.

Molecules

52

These hormones cannot cross the plasma membrane, so they bind to receptors on the _____.

Cell surface

53

What are the three possible 2nd messenger mechanisms?

Adenylate cyclase
Phospholipase
Tyrosine kinase

54

Adenylate cyclase bind to a _____ receptor.

B- adrenergic

55

______ dissociates in Adenylate cyclase.

G-proteins

56

Adenylate cyclase uses ______ to make cAMP.

ATP

57

In Adenylate cyclase, cAMP activates _____.

Protein kinase

58

Phospholipase C system is used ______ in some cells.

Epinephrine

59

Phospholipase binds to a ______ receptor.

A-adrenergic

60

Phospholipase produces IP3 and _____.

DAG

61

Phospholipase liberates Ca2+ from the ________.

Endoplasmic reticulum

62

In phospholipase, Ca2+ activates _______.

Calmodulin

63

Phospholipase activates protein kinases to modify ______.

Enzymes

64

_____ uses the tyrosine kinase system.

Insulin

65

In the tyrosine kinase system, the ligand binding site is on the outside of the cell, and the enzyme faces the ____.

Cytoplasm

66

The enzyme portion of the tyrosine kinase system is activated via _______.

Phosphorylation

67

The _______ is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum.

Pituitary gland

68

The pituitary gland is divided into an _______ (adenohypophysis) and a _________ (neurohypophysis).

Anterior lobe
Posterior lobe

69

The pituitary hormones are secreted by the _____.

Anterior lobe

70

In the pituitary glands, the _____ stimulate hormone secretion in other glands.

Trophic hormones

71

Growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin are are glands that hormones secrete that are stimulated by the ____.

Trophic hormones

72

The _______ stores and releases two hormones made in the hypothalamus.

Posterior pituitary

73

The ______ is one of the hormones in the posterior pituitary which promote the retention of water in the kidneys.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

74

The _____ is one of the hormones in the posterior pituitary which stimulate contractions in childbirth.

Oxytocin

75

_____ and ______ are produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.

ADH
Oxytocin

76

ADH and oxytocin are transported along the axons of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract to the _____.

Posterior pituitary

77

The ADH and oxytocin release is controlled by the ______ reflexes.

Neuroendocrine

78

The _______ is controlled via releasing and inhibiting hormones transported through the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.

Anterior pituitary

79

Corticotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, prolactin-inhibiting hormone, somatostatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and growth hormone-releasing hormone are the six releasing hormones in the______.

Anterior pituitary

80

The final hormonal product regulates secretion of ______ hormones.

Pituitary

81

Inhibition can occur at the _______ level, inhibiting response to hypothalamic hormones.

Pituitary gland

82

Inhibition can occur at the _____ level, inhibiting secretion of releasing hormones.

Hypothalamus

83

Since the hypothalamus receives input from higher brain regions, _____ can alter hormone secretion.

Emotions

84

At least _____ brain regions and olfactory neurons send axons to the GHRH- producing neurons.

26

85

_____ increase CRH production.

Stressors

86

Adrenal glands are found atop the _____.

Kidneys

87

The _____ consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla that function as separate glands.

Adrenal glands

88

The ______ secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to neural stimulation from the hypothalamus.

Adrenal medulla

89

The _____ secretes steroid hormones in response to ACTH.

Adrenal cortex

90

Corticosteroids are made from _____.

Cholesterol

91

Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids are three categories of the ______.

Corticosteroids

92

______ regulate Na+ and K+ balance. Example is aldosterone.

Mineralocorticoids

93

_____ regulate glucose metabolism. Example is cortisol.

Glucocorticoids

94

_____ are weak androgens that supplement those made in the gonads.

Sex steroids

95

What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex?

Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis

96

The adrenal medulla hormones contai______ and ______.

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

97

The adrenal medulla hormones are activated with the ______ response.

Sympathetic

98

The adrenal medulla hormones have effects similar to sympathetic innervation but lasting _____ times longer.

10

99

The ______ increase cardiac output, respiratory rate, and mental alterness. It also dilates the coronary blood vessels and elevates metabolic rates.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine in the adrenal medulla hormones

100

_____ increases secretion of ACTH, which results in increased glucocorticoid release.

Stress

101

When stress increases secretion of ACTH which results in an increased glucocorticoid release is called ______.

General adaptation syndrome

102

The ______ is good for proper recovery after stress, such as an illness or trauma.

General adaptation syndrome

103

_____ helps inhibit the immune system so it does not overrespond.

Cortisol

104

______ leads to an increased risk of illness.

Chronic stress

105

______ may act on higher brain regions, contributing to depressing and anxiety.

Cortisol

106

By stimulating the ____ to release glucose, insulin receptors may become resistant, making it harder to treat people with diabetes.

Liver

107

The ____ is located just below the larynx.

Thyroid gland

108

The thyroid gland consists of hallow spaces called _____ lined with simple cuboidal epithelium.

Thyroid follicles

109

In the thyroid gland, the interior of the follicles is filled with a fluid called _____.

Colloid

110

In the thyroid gland, the outside of the follicles are _________.

Parafollicular cells

111

_____ is made by the follicular cells.

Thyroglobulin

112

Thyroid follicles actively accumulate iodine and secrete it into the _____.

Colloid

113

The _____ is attached to tyrosines within the thyroglobulin molecule.

Iodine

114

_____ iodine produces monoiodotyrosine.

One

115

______ iodines produce diiodotyrosine.

Two

116

The ______ stimulates protein synthesis.

Thyroid hormone

117

_____ promotes maturation of the nervous system.

Thyroid hormone

118

The _____ increases rate of cellular respiration, which elevates basal metabolic rate.

Thyroid hormone

119

The _____ is made by the parafollicular cells.

Calcitonin

120

_____ inhibits dissolution of calcium from bone and stimulates excretion of calcium in the kidneys to lower blood calcium levels.

Calcitonin

121

______ leads to overstimulation of the thyroid gland and growth of a goiter.

Iodine deficiency

122

______ is low metabolic rates, weight gain and lethargy, poor adaptation to cold stress, and myxedema.

Hypothyroidism

123

____ are embedded in the back of the thyroid gland.

Parathyroid gland

124

The _______ promotes a rise in blood calcium by acting on bones, kidneys, and intestine.

Parathyroid hormone

125

The _____ is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland.

Pancreas

126

The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in the ______.

Islets of Langerhans

127

The alpha cells in the endocrine cells of the pancreas contain _____.

Glucagon

128

The beta cells n the endocrine cells of the pancreas contain ____.

Insulin

129

____ is secreted by beta cells when blood glucose levels rise after a sugary meal.

Insulin

130

The purpose of _____ is to lower blood glucose levels to the "normal" range.

Insulin

131

Insulin binds to receptors on _____.

Target cells

132

Insulin occurs in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the ____.

Liver

133

_____ indirectly stimulates the enzyme glycogen synthase in liver and skeletal muscles to promote sugar storage.

Insulin

134

Insulin stimulates adipose tissue to _____.

Store fat

135

____ is an antagonistic to insulin.

Glucagon

136

_____ is secreted by alpha cells when blood glucose levels are low.

Glucagon

137

The purpose of ____ is to raise blood glucose levels to a "normal" range.

Glucagon

138

Glucagon stimulates the _____ to hydrolyze glucagon into glucose and release it into the blood.

Liver

139

____ stimulates gluconeogenesis, conversion of noncarbohydratese into glucose.

Glucagon

140

Glucagon stimulates ____ in adipose tissue so fat is release and used as a fuel source instead of glucose.

Lipolysis

141

The _____ is located on the roof of the third ventricle in the brain.

Pineal gland

142

The pineal gland secreted the hormone _____.

Melatonin

143

The _____ is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that stimulates melatonin production when it gets darker.

Pineal gland

144

The _____ is where several hormones are made in the organs of the intestinal tract to regulate iterative processes.

Intestinal tract

145

The _____ produce testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.

Gonads

146

The ____ and ____ are both involved in short range signaling between neighboring cells within an organ.

Autocrine
Paracrine signals

147

The ______ is where the sender and receiver are the same cell type.

Autocrine signal

148

The ____ is where the sender and receiver are different cell types/tissues.

Paracrine signals

149

Many regulatory molecules are called cytokines or _____.

Growth factors

150

____ is made from arachidonic acid released for phospholipids in the plasma membrane.

Prostaglandins

151

The ____ system promotes inflammation.

Immune

152

The ___ system aids ovulation.

Reproductive

153

The _____ system inhibits secretion and stimulates propulsion and absorption.

Digestive

154

The _____system aids bronchoconstriction and dilation.

Respiratory

155

The _____ system affects vasoconstriction and dilation, blood clotting.

Circulation

156

The _____ system increases blood flow to the kidneys, which increases exciting of urine.

Urinary

157

_____ inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase.

NSAID

158

The side effects of NSAID include gastric bleeding, kidney problems, and _____.

Less clotting

159

What is the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug?

Aspirin

160

COX1 is found in the stomach and _____.

Kidneys

161

Adenylate cyclase is used by _____ and _____.

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

162

COX2 is involved in ______.

Inflammation

163

Phospholipase C system is used ______ in some cells.

Epinephrine

164

The hormone primarily responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate and for promoting the maturation of the brain is?

Thyroxine

165

Steroid hormones are secreted by?

Adrenal cortex and gonads

166

The secretion of which of these hormones would be increased in a person with endemic goiter?

TSH

167

Which of these hormones uses a cAMP as a second messenger?

Epinephrine

168

Which of these terms best describes the interactions of insulin and glucagon?

Antagonistic

169

Which of these correctly describes the role of inositol triphosphate in hormone secretion?

It stimulates the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum

170

Which of these hormones may have a primary role in many circadian rhythms?

Melatonin