Flashcards in Ch 11: endocrine glands Deck (170):
______ are ductless and secrete hormones into the blood.
Hormones are carried to ____ having receptors for those hormones.
What four organs to the endocrine glands secrete hormones?
Amines are derived from tyrosine and _____.
Hormones from the adrenal medulla, thyroid, and pineal glands are all examples of what?
Antidiuretic hormone, insulin, and growth hormone are all examples of what?
Polypeptides and proteins
_____ are long polypeptides bound to carbohydrate.
Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones are examples of what?
____ are lipids derived from cholesterol.
Testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol are all examples of what?
_____ are secreted by adrenal cortex and gonads.
_____ are water soluble, cannot pass through plasma membranes, and must be injected if used as a drug.
_____ are insoluble in water, can enter target cells directly, include steroids and thyroid hormone, and can be taken orally in pill form.
Nonpolar hormones are often called _____ hormones.
______ are inactive hormones that must be cut and spliced together to be active.
What is an example of a prohormone?
______ are inactive hormones that must be modified within their target cells.
Hormones and neurotransmitters both interact with specific ____.
Binding to a receptor causes a change with the _____.
A ______ is usually responsive to several different hormones.
_____ may be antagonistic, synergistic, or permissive.
How a cell responds depends on the amount of ____ and the combination of all hormones.
______ occur when two or more hormones work together to produce a particular effect.
Synergistic effects may be addictive, as when epinephrine and norepinephrine each affect the ____ in the same way.
Producing milk requires estrogen, prolactin, and oxytocin are all examples of what?
______ occurs when one hormone makes the target cell more responsive to a second hormone.
Exposure to estrogen makes the ____ more responsive to progesterone.
______ occurs when hormones work in opposite directions.
Insulin and glycogen both affect _______.
______ stimulates fat storage, while _____ stimulates fat breakdown.
The half-life of hormones circulating in the blood ranges from ____ to _____.
Most hormones are removed from the body by the _____.
______ hormone circulates for several days.
Tissues only respond when hormone concentrations are at a certain _____ level.
At a _____ pharmacological concentrations, effects may be different than normal.
Some target cells respond to a particular hormone by _____ the number of receptors it has for that hormone.
Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of hormone may result in a _____ number of receptors for that hormone.
To avoid desensitization, many hormones are released in spurts called _______.
Hormones bind to receptors on or in _____.
Hormones bind to receptors with a high ______ (strength).
Hormones bind to receptors with a low _____ (saturation).
Hormones that bind to receptors in the nucleus are _____ steroid hormones and _____ hormone.
Receptors are found within the nucleus and are called _____.
Nuclear hormone receptors
Theses hormones activate genetic transcription by serving as ________.
The effect of these hormones is therefore to produce new _____, usually enzymes that change metabolism inside the cell. "Game Changers".
What are two regions of the nuclear hormone receptors?
Ligand (hormone)- binding domain
Binding of the hormone activates the ________, and it binds to a hormone response element on the DNA.
Modern science has identified many "orphan" receptors without a known ____.
Steroid hormone actions receptors are located in the _____.
After the steroid hormone actions bind, they translocate to the nucleus and bind to ____.
____ are needed in addition to the steroid hormone.
These hormones cannot cross the plasma membrane, so they bind to receptors on the _____.
What are the three possible 2nd messenger mechanisms?
Adenylate cyclase bind to a _____ receptor.
______ dissociates in Adenylate cyclase.
Adenylate cyclase uses ______ to make cAMP.
In Adenylate cyclase, cAMP activates _____.
Phospholipase C system is used ______ in some cells.
Phospholipase binds to a ______ receptor.
Phospholipase produces IP3 and _____.
Phospholipase liberates Ca2+ from the ________.
In phospholipase, Ca2+ activates _______.
Phospholipase activates protein kinases to modify ______.
_____ uses the tyrosine kinase system.
In the tyrosine kinase system, the ligand binding site is on the outside of the cell, and the enzyme faces the ____.
The enzyme portion of the tyrosine kinase system is activated via _______.
The _______ is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum.
The pituitary gland is divided into an _______ (adenohypophysis) and a _________ (neurohypophysis).
The pituitary hormones are secreted by the _____.
In the pituitary glands, the _____ stimulate hormone secretion in other glands.
Growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin are are glands that hormones secrete that are stimulated by the ____.
The _______ stores and releases two hormones made in the hypothalamus.
The ______ is one of the hormones in the posterior pituitary which promote the retention of water in the kidneys.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
The _____ is one of the hormones in the posterior pituitary which stimulate contractions in childbirth.
_____ and ______ are produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
ADH and oxytocin are transported along the axons of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract to the _____.
The ADH and oxytocin release is controlled by the ______ reflexes.
The _______ is controlled via releasing and inhibiting hormones transported through the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, prolactin-inhibiting hormone, somatostatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and growth hormone-releasing hormone are the six releasing hormones in the______.
The final hormonal product regulates secretion of ______ hormones.
Inhibition can occur at the _______ level, inhibiting response to hypothalamic hormones.
Inhibition can occur at the _____ level, inhibiting secretion of releasing hormones.
Since the hypothalamus receives input from higher brain regions, _____ can alter hormone secretion.
At least _____ brain regions and olfactory neurons send axons to the GHRH- producing neurons.
_____ increase CRH production.
Adrenal glands are found atop the _____.
The _____ consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla that function as separate glands.
The ______ secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to neural stimulation from the hypothalamus.
The _____ secretes steroid hormones in response to ACTH.
Corticosteroids are made from _____.
Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids are three categories of the ______.
______ regulate Na+ and K+ balance. Example is aldosterone.
_____ regulate glucose metabolism. Example is cortisol.
_____ are weak androgens that supplement those made in the gonads.
What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex?
The adrenal medulla hormones contai______ and ______.
The adrenal medulla hormones are activated with the ______ response.
The adrenal medulla hormones have effects similar to sympathetic innervation but lasting _____ times longer.
The ______ increase cardiac output, respiratory rate, and mental alterness. It also dilates the coronary blood vessels and elevates metabolic rates.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine in the adrenal medulla hormones
_____ increases secretion of ACTH, which results in increased glucocorticoid release.
When stress increases secretion of ACTH which results in an increased glucocorticoid release is called ______.
General adaptation syndrome
The ______ is good for proper recovery after stress, such as an illness or trauma.
General adaptation syndrome
_____ helps inhibit the immune system so it does not overrespond.
______ leads to an increased risk of illness.
______ may act on higher brain regions, contributing to depressing and anxiety.
By stimulating the ____ to release glucose, insulin receptors may become resistant, making it harder to treat people with diabetes.
The ____ is located just below the larynx.
The thyroid gland consists of hallow spaces called _____ lined with simple cuboidal epithelium.
In the thyroid gland, the interior of the follicles is filled with a fluid called _____.
In the thyroid gland, the outside of the follicles are _________.
_____ is made by the follicular cells.
Thyroid follicles actively accumulate iodine and secrete it into the _____.
The _____ is attached to tyrosines within the thyroglobulin molecule.
_____ iodine produces monoiodotyrosine.
______ iodines produce diiodotyrosine.
The ______ stimulates protein synthesis.
_____ promotes maturation of the nervous system.
The _____ increases rate of cellular respiration, which elevates basal metabolic rate.
The _____ is made by the parafollicular cells.
_____ inhibits dissolution of calcium from bone and stimulates excretion of calcium in the kidneys to lower blood calcium levels.
______ leads to overstimulation of the thyroid gland and growth of a goiter.
______ is low metabolic rates, weight gain and lethargy, poor adaptation to cold stress, and myxedema.
____ are embedded in the back of the thyroid gland.
The _______ promotes a rise in blood calcium by acting on bones, kidneys, and intestine.
The _____ is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland.
The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in the ______.
Islets of Langerhans
The alpha cells in the endocrine cells of the pancreas contain _____.
The beta cells n the endocrine cells of the pancreas contain ____.
____ is secreted by beta cells when blood glucose levels rise after a sugary meal.
The purpose of _____ is to lower blood glucose levels to the "normal" range.
Insulin binds to receptors on _____.
Insulin occurs in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the ____.
_____ indirectly stimulates the enzyme glycogen synthase in liver and skeletal muscles to promote sugar storage.
Insulin stimulates adipose tissue to _____.
____ is an antagonistic to insulin.
_____ is secreted by alpha cells when blood glucose levels are low.
The purpose of ____ is to raise blood glucose levels to a "normal" range.
Glucagon stimulates the _____ to hydrolyze glucagon into glucose and release it into the blood.
____ stimulates gluconeogenesis, conversion of noncarbohydratese into glucose.
Glucagon stimulates ____ in adipose tissue so fat is release and used as a fuel source instead of glucose.
The _____ is located on the roof of the third ventricle in the brain.
The pineal gland secreted the hormone _____.
The _____ is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that stimulates melatonin production when it gets darker.
The _____ is where several hormones are made in the organs of the intestinal tract to regulate iterative processes.
The _____ produce testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.
The ____ and ____ are both involved in short range signaling between neighboring cells within an organ.
The ______ is where the sender and receiver are the same cell type.
The ____ is where the sender and receiver are different cell types/tissues.
Many regulatory molecules are called cytokines or _____.
____ is made from arachidonic acid released for phospholipids in the plasma membrane.
The ____ system promotes inflammation.
The ___ system aids ovulation.
The _____ system inhibits secretion and stimulates propulsion and absorption.
The _____system aids bronchoconstriction and dilation.
The _____ system affects vasoconstriction and dilation, blood clotting.
The _____ system increases blood flow to the kidneys, which increases exciting of urine.
_____ inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
The side effects of NSAID include gastric bleeding, kidney problems, and _____.
What is the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug?
COX1 is found in the stomach and _____.
Adenylate cyclase is used by _____ and _____.
COX2 is involved in ______.
Phospholipase C system is used ______ in some cells.
The hormone primarily responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate and for promoting the maturation of the brain is?
Steroid hormones are secreted by?
Adrenal cortex and gonads
The secretion of which of these hormones would be increased in a person with endemic goiter?
Which of these hormones uses a cAMP as a second messenger?
Which of these terms best describes the interactions of insulin and glucagon?
Which of these correctly describes the role of inositol triphosphate in hormone secretion?
It stimulates the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum