Ch 13: Blood, Heart, And Circulation Flashcards Preview

Physiology Final > Ch 13: Blood, Heart, And Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13: Blood, Heart, And Circulation Deck (129):
0

Which of the following contains the antibodies?

Gamma globulins

1

Each RBC lives about ____ days.

120

2

A monocyte is a granular leukocyte. T/F

False

3

Which organ produces erythropoietin?

Kidneys

4

The intrinsic clotting cascade beings with which factor?

Factor XII

5

What are the three circulatory system functions?

Transportation, regulation, protection

6

Respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are under which circulatory system function?

Transportation

7

Hormonal and temperature are under which circulatory system function?

Regulation

8

Clotting and immune are under which circulatory system function?

Protection

9

What are the two circulatory system components?

Cardiovascular system, lymphatic system

10

The __________ contains the heart and the blood vessels.

Cardiovascular system

11

The _____ contains the lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues, lymphatic organs (spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes).

Lymphatic system

12

_____ is the fluid part of the blood that contains plasma proteins and serum.

Plasma

13

______ creates osmotic pressure to help draw water from tissues into capillaries to maintain blood volume and pressure.

Albumin

14

Some _____ carry lipids.

Globulins

15

_____ have antibodies.

Gamma globulins

16

____ helps in clotting after becoming fibrin.

Fibrinogen

17

What composition of blood carries oxygen, lack nuclei and mitochondria, have a 120 day life span, and contain hemoglobin and transferrin?

Erythrocytes

18

What composition of blood has a nuclei and mitochondria?

Leukocyte

19

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are all a type of ______.

Granular leukocytes

20

Monocytes and lymphocytes are all a type of _______.

Agranular leukocytes

21

Which composition of blood is the smallest formed element, lacks nuclei, very short lived (5-9 days), clot blood, and need fibrinogen?

Platelets

22

______ is a process of blood cell formation.

Hematopoiesis

23

The _______ is secreted by the kidneys, has low oxygen levels, and initiates erythropoietin.

Erythropoiesis

24

The ____ is secreted by the liver and regulates iron metabolism.

Hepcidin

25

______ are found on the surface of cells to help the immune system recognize self cells.

Antigens

26

_____ are secreted by lymphocytes in response to foreign cells.

Antibodies

27

______ is where the antigens on the erythrocyte cell surfaces.

ABO system

28

What blood type has the A antigen?

Type A

29

What blood type has the B antigen?

Type B

30

What blood type has both the A and B antigens?

Type AB

31

What blood type has neither the A nor the B antigen?

Type O

32

In a _________, a person has antibodies against antigens he does not have.

Transfusion reaction

33

If a person receives the wrong blood type, antibodies bind to erythrocytes and cause ________.

Agglutination

34

______ can be used for blood typing.

Agglutination

35

An Rh- mother exposed to Rh+ fetal blood produces ______.

Antibodies

36

______ is the cessation of bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged.

Hemostasis

37

Intact endothelium secretes prostacyclin and ______, which vasodilate and inhibit platelet aggregation.

Nitric oxide

38

Activated by exposure to collagen is known as _______.

Intrinsic

39

______ activates a cascade of other blood factors.

Factor XII

40

_____ is initiated by tissue factor (factor III or tissue thromboplastin). This is a more direct pathway.

Extrinsic

41

What vitamin is needed for both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways?

Vitamin K

42

What three drugs can be used to help prevent clotting?

Calcium chelators
Heparin (blocks thrombin)
Coumarin (inhibits vitamin K)

43

The ________ receives deoxygenated blood from the body.

Right atrium

44

The ______ receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

Left atrium

45

The _______ pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

Right ventricle

46

The _______ pumps oxygenated blood to the body.

Left ventricle

47

The _________ separates the atria from the ventricles. The atria therefore work as one unit, while the ventricles work as a separate unit.

Fibrous skeleton

48

The ______ hold in the heart valves.

Annuli fibrosi

49

The _____ circulation is between the heart and the lungs

Pulmonary

50

In the pulmonary circulation, the blood pumps to the lungs via ________.

Pulmonary arteries

51

In the pulmonary circulation, the blood returns to the heart via _____.

Pulmonary veins

52

The ______ circulation is between the heart and body tissues.

Systemic

53

In the systemic circulation, the blood pumps to body tissues via the _____.

Aorta

54

In the systemic circulation, the blood returns to the heart via the _______ and ______.

Superior and inferior venae cavae

55

The _____ is located between the atria and the ventricles.

Atrioventricular valves

56

The _____ is between the right atrium and the ventricle.

Tricuspid

57

The ________ is between the left atrium and ventricle

Bicuspid

58

The ________ are located between the ventricles and arteries leaving the heart.

Semilunar valves

59

The _____ is between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.

Pulmomary

60

The ______ is between the left ventricle and aorta.

Aortic

61

Heart sounds are produced by ______ valves.

Closing

62

"Lub" is the closing of the ________ valves. Occurs at ventricular systole.

Atrioventricular

63

"Dub" is the closing of the _______ valves. Occurs at ventricular diastole.

Semilunar

64

Mitral valve calcified and impairs flow between the left atrium and ventricle is known as?

Mitral stenosis

65

________ valves do not close properly.

Incompetent

66

________ are holes in the interventricular or interatrial septum.

Septal Defects

67

______ is the contraction of the heart muscles.

Systole

68

____ is the relaxation of the heart muscles.

Diastole

69

Which of the following is NOT true of venous blood?

Always has lower oxygen content

70

How much blood does the average-sized adult have?

5 liters

71

Which part of the red blood cell can bind to oxygen?

Heme part of hemoglobin

72

Which of the following is NOT a granular leukocyte?

Monocyte

73

The process of blood formation is?

Hematopoiesis

74

What organ secretes erythropoietin?

Kidneys

75

When the wrong blood type is given to a patient, the antibodies in the patient's blood react with the antigens on the surface of the transfused blood causing a reaction called?

Agglutination

76

Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs when?

The mother has Rh- and the fetus has Rh+ blood.

77

What ion is necessary for the clotting process?

Ca2+

78

Aspirin inhibits blood clotting by directly preventing?

Platelet plug formation

79

What is the enzyme that converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin?

Thrombin

80

The amount of blood ejected by the ventricles per beat is termed the?

Stroke volume

81

During isovolumetric ventricular relaxation?

Atrial pressure is less than ventricular pressure

82

What occurs when the pressure in the ventricles drops below the pressure of the atria?

AV valves open

83

_______ also known as the "pacemaker" is located in the right atrium.

Sinoatrial node

84

At _____, voltage gated Ca2+ channels open, triggering action potential and contraction.

-40 mV

85

______ and ______ increase the production of cAMP, which keeps Na+ channels open. Speeds heart rate.

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

86

Parasympathetic neurons secrete ______, which opens K+ channels. Slows heart rate.

Acetylcholine

87

Cardiac muscle cells have a resting potential of ______.

-90 mV

88

Voltage gated channels open, and membrane potential plateaus at _____ for 200-300 msec. Due to the balance between slow ____ of Ca2+ and ____ of K+.

15 mV
Influx
Efflux

89

In the _____ the bundle of His divides into bumble branches.

Interventricular septum

90

Branch bundles become ____, which stimulate ventricular contraction.

Purkinje fibers

91

What instrument records the electrical activity of the heart by picking up the movement of ions in body tissues in response to this activity?

Electrocardiogram

92

____ wave is atrial depolarization.

P

93

____ wave is the ventricular depolarization.

QRS

94

The ____ segment is the plateau phase.

S-T

95

___ wave is the ventricular repolarization.

T

96

Which lead is between the right arm and the right leg?

Lead I

97

Which lead is between the right arm and the left leg?

Lead II

98

Which lead is between the left arm and the left leg?

Lead III

99

How many chest leads are there?

Six

100

Lub occurs after the ____ wave.

QRS

101

Dub occurs at the beginning of the _____ wave.

T

102

What are the 5 different blood vessels?

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

103

The _____ is the inner layer that is composed of simple squamous endothelium on a basement membrane and connective tissue.

Tunica intima

104

The ____ is the middle layer that is composed of smooth muscle tissue.

Tunica media

105

The ____ is the outer layer that is composed of connective tissue.

Tunica external

106

The ____ are closer to the heart, and allow stretch as blood is pumped into them and recoil when the ventricles relax.

Elastic arteries

107

The _____ are farther from the heart, and have more smooth muscle in proportion to diameter. It also has more resistance due to smaller lumina.

Muscular arteries

108

The _____ are 20-30 um in diameter.

Arterioles

109

The ____ have a diameter of 7-10 um.

Smallest blood vessel

110

_____ are where gases and nutrients are exchanged between the blood and tissue.

Capillaries

111

_______ capillaries have adjacent cells that are close together. They are found in the muscles, adipose tissue, and CNS.

Continuous

112

The ______ capillaries have pores in the vessel wall, and are found in the kidneys, intestines, and endocrine glands.

Fenestrated

113

_____ capillaries have gaps between the cells, and are found n bone marrow, liver, and the spleen. It allows the passage of proteins.

Discontinuous

114

_____ is the muscles surrounding the veins that help pump blood.

Skeletal muscle pumps

115

_____ ensures one-directional flow of blood.

Venous valves

116

______ is the flattening of the diaphragm at inhalation increases abdominal cavity pressure in relation to thoracic pressure and moves blood toward the heart.

Breathing

117

______ contributes to 50% of the deaths due to heart attack and stroke.

Atherosclerosis

118

_____ is caused by smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

Atherosclerosis

119

Low density lipoproteins carry ____ to arteries.

Cholesterol

120

High density lipoproteins carry cholesterol away from the arteries to the ____ for metabolism.

Liver

121

______ is now believed to be an inflammatory disease.

Atherosclerosis

122

_____ is a condition characterized by inadequate oxygen due to reduced blood flow.

Ischemia

123

The ______ function is to transport excess interstitial fluid from the tissues to the veins, produce and house lymphocytes for the immune response, and transport absorbed fats from intestines to the blood.

Lymphatic system

124

The _______ are the smallest vessels in he lymphatic system, and are found within most organs. Interstitial fluids, proteins, fats, and microorganisms can enter here.

Lymphatic capillaries

125

The ____ are formed from merging capillaries.

Lymph ducts

126

The thoracic trunk an the right lymphatic trunk deliver lymph into the __________.

Right and left subclavian veins

127

The three organs of the lymphatic system are?

Tonsils, thymus, spleen

128

The action potential of cardiac pacemaker cells is caused by?

Inward diffusion of Ca2+