Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (163):
The testes stop making testosterone by the _________, and the ovaries don't make embryonic sex hormone.
Sex hormone secretion does not occur again in either sex until the gonads are stimulated at _______.
Once the sex hormone secretion occurs, the anterior pituitary begins releasing _________.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the ________ of both males and females with three effects.
Anterior pituitary glands
The stimulation of spermatogenesis, stimulation of gonadal hormone secretion, and maintenance of the structures of the gonads are the three effects of what?
FSH and LH that are produced in the anterior pituitary glands
The release of FSH and LH is controlled by the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the ________.
The regulation of FSH and LH is regulated by a negative-feedback loop where rising levels of _________ and inhibiting the GnRH release, and inhibiting the pituitary response to GnRH.
Aside from the usual gonadal hormones, the gonads also secrete _______.
The inhibin is secreted by _____ in the testes.
The inhibin is secreted by granulosa cells of ________ follicles.
The inhibin specifically inhibits release of ____.
FSH (no effect on LH)
Secretion of ______ is pulsatile so FSH and LH are also pulsatile (more apparent in females than males).
Frequency of pulsations affects the _______ response.
Secretion of FSH and LH is elevated at _____ and stays high for the first 6 months of postnatal life.
After secretion of FSH and LH is elevated at birth, it declines to almost nothing until ______.
Puberty begins with a release of ______.
Puberty begins with a release of LH due to the declining sensitivity of the hypothalamus to negative feedback effects of ______.
Puberty begins with a release of LH, which results in increases in ________ or estradiol-17Beta secretion.
Puberty begins with a release of LH, which produce _____ sex characteristics.
The secondary sex characteristics in ______ are growth spurts, breast development, and menarche (first menstrual flow).
The secondary sex characteristics in ____ are later growth spurts, and body, muscle, penis, testis growth.
The secondary sex characteristics in both sexes is body hair is stimulated by ______ from adrenal gland at puberty.
Age of the onset of puberty depends on ______ and amount of body fat.
_____ is secreted by adipose cells is required for the onset of puberty.
In the onset of puberty, ______ may inhibit GnRH secretion.
More ______, ______ girls begin puberty later.
______ from the pineal gland may play a role in onset of puberty, but this is not proven in humans.
______ is a human sexual response that is characterized by increased muscle tone, vasocongestion of sexual organs; also called arousal.
_____ is a human sexual response that continues vasocongestion.
____ is a human sexual response that causes contraction of the uterus/vagina and male ejaculatory organs.
____ is a human sexual response where the body returns to pre-excitation condition.
Men experience a ________ where that are not able to ejaculate.
The two compartments of the testes are the _____ and _______.
Seminiferous Tubules and Interstitial Tissue
The ______ in the testes are where spermatogenesis occurs.
In the seminiferous tubules, the FSH receptors are found on the _______.
In the seminiferous tubules, the FSH influences _______.
The ________ is the testes are where Leydig cells make testosterone; also filled with blood and lymphatic capillaries.
In the interstitial tissue, the LH receptors are found on the ________.
In the interstitial tissue, ______ is secreted in response to LH.
______ secretion is controlled by rising testosterone secretion through negative feedback.
______ secretion is controlled by testosterone and inhibin secretion.
_______ is released from the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules.
_______ is converted to its derivatives in brain cells.
_______ in converted by 5a-reductase to DHT, other androgens, or to estradiol by aromatase enzyme.
_______ is used to inhibit LH secretion.
Male and female brains are different due to the effects of ______ and ______.
Testosterone and estradiol
Negative feedback effects of ____ and ___ maintain a relatively constant secretion of gonadotropins in males.
Testosterone and inhibin
Androgen secretion declines slowly in males to a hypogonadal state by age ____.
Other factors that affect testosterone secretion are ______, ______, ______.
Physical inactivity, obesity, drugs
______ is secreted by Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and developing sperm.
Receptors for ______ are on Sertoli and Leydig cells, cells lining the ducts, and accessory glands.
The role in ______ is to regulate the enviornment of developing sperm, fluid reabsorption, and sealing epiphyseal plates.
Growth and development of wolffian ducts into epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, urogenital sinus into prostate and male external genitalia describes the actions of what androgen in the male?
At puberty the completion of meiotic division and early maturation of spermatids, and after puberty the maintenance of spermatogenesis describes the action for what androgen in the male?
Growth and maintenance of accessory sex organs, growth of the penis, facial, and axillary hair, and body growth describes the action of what androgen in the male?
Secondary Sex Characteristic
Protein synthesis and muscle growth, growth of bones and other organs, and erythropoiesis is the action for what androgen in the male?
In _______, germ cells from the yolk sac migrate to the testes early in embryonic development.
Diploid spermatogonia first go through _____ to increase the number of cells.
In spermatogenesis, one of the daughter cells continues through meiosis and the other daughter cell remains a _______.
In spermatogenesis, after meiosis 1 it goes to 2 secondary _____.
In spermatogenesis, after meiosis 2 there are 4 _______.
In spermatogenesis, the process occurs as the cells move toward the _____ of the seminiferous tubules.
_____ is the maturation of spermatids into functioning spermatoza.
Protamines replace ____ associated with DNA.
Sperm development requires ____ cells.
_______ create a blood-testis barrier controlling what can enter the seminiferous tubules and preventing the immune system from developing antibodies against the sperm.
The Sertoli cells phagocytose some of the spermatid ____ in spermiogenesis creating residual bodies.
Sertoli cells secrete ________ into the seminiferous tubule lumen. This binds to testosterone and concentrates it in the tubule.
Androgen binding protein production is stimulated by _____ and only Sertoli cells have these receptors.
_______ stimulates speratogenesis and spermiogenesis.
______ is required to stimulate meiosis and early spermatid maturation.
Testosterone is secreted by the _______ after stimulation by LH.
_____ enhances spermatogenesis through the action of the Sertoli cells that are stimulated to make ABP, which concentrates the testosterone levels.
_____ ensures optimal fertility.
Spermatids move from the seminiferous tubules --> rete testis --> _______ --> epidiymis.
The ______ is the site of sperm maturation and storage. It is where sperm becomes motile.
In ejaculation, spermatoza move from the epididymis --> ductus deferens --> _______ -->urethra.
The seminal vesicle and prostate gland add fluid to the sperm to form _____.
Seminal fluid contains ______ (energy for sperm).
Prostate fluid contains citric acid, ______, and coagulation proteins.
Erection results from the blood flow into erectile tissues of the penis: _______ and _________.
Corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
In erection, due to the parasympathetic nerve, induced vasodilation of the arterioles leading to the _______.
In erection, ______ serves as the NT.
The Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase to produce cGMP --> closes Ca2+ channels --> decreases the cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels --> _______.
Venous outflow of blood is partially blocked during an _______.
Erections are controlled by the _______ and the sacral region of the spinal cord.
Erections can also occur due to conscious sexual thought. ______-->spinal cord-->penis
or sensory stimulation. ______-->spinal cord-->penis
______ is the movement of semen into the urethra.
_____ is the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra.
Emission and ejaculation are both under the ______ nervous system control.
Contraction of smooth muscles in the tubules, seminal vesicle, prostate, and muscles at base of the penis is involved in _______.
A sperm count <20 million/ml semen is called ______ and is considered less fertile.
Oligospermia may be caused by ______, ______, or anabolic steroids.
A _______ is the most widely used and reliable form of male contraception.
In a vasectomy, the _____ is cut and tied to prohibit sperm transport.
A vasectomy does not affect testosterone production or ______.
_____ are the female gonads, and is the site of oocyte and steroid production.
The _____ have fimbriae that partially wrap around the ovaries and "catch" the oocyte after ovulation.
What is the most common site of fertilization?
The Uterine Tubes
The _____ is the site of embryonic development.
What are the the layers of the uterus?
Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium, Cervix
The _______ is the inner layer of the uterus, and is where the embryo implants and develops. It is made of the stratum basale and stratum functionale.
The ______ is the middle muscle layer of the uterus, and it contracts to expel baby at birth.
The ______ is the outer connective tissue layer of the uterus.
The _____ is the narrow bottom region of the uterus.
The _____ is an organ of copulation that opens between the labia (majora and minora).
The ______ is the erectile tissue in the female reproductive organs.
Toward the end of gestation, a female's oogonia begin meiosis to produce _____.
The ovaries of a newborn girl have _____ primary oocytes.
By puberty, the ovaries of a girl is cut to about ________ primary oocytes.
Only about ____ primary oocytes will be ovulated in her lifetime.
Primary oocytes are contained within _____ that have one layer of cells.
In response to FSH, some of the primary follicles grow to produce many layers of ____.
Some primary follicles develop fluid-filled vesicles called _______.
Continued growth results in fused vesicles to form a single antrum is called a mature ______.
Cell layers called the _____ and _____ form around the oocytes and serve as a barrier for sperm entry.
Corona Radiata and Zona Pellucida
Continued development of one Graafian follicles occurs because of stimulation from FSH, _______, and paracrine signals.
As a Graafian follicle grows, the primary oocyte finishes meiosis 1 to become a _______.
The secondary oocyte begins in meiosis 2, but stops at ______.
By the ____ to _____ day after the first day of menstruation, one follicle becomes a mature Graafian follicle.
10th to 14th
The secondary follicles that do not become a Graafian follicle regress and become a atretic, a type of ______.
A mature Graafian follicle is protected from atresis and forms a bulge on the surface of the _____.
After ovulation, the remaining follicle become a ________.
A corpus luteum secretes both ____ and _____.
Estradiol and Progesterone
Anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH controlled by GnRH and negative feedback from _____ hormones.
Aside from stimulating the development of the follicles, FSH simulates ______ production in the follicles.
The bigger the follicle, the more ______ it releases.
The _____ describes the 28 day cycle of endometrial buildup and sloughing in response to ovarian hormones.
What are the three phases in the menstrual cycle?
Menstrual, Proliferative, Secretory
Follicular changes in the ovaries can be broken into what three phases?
Follicular Phase, Ovulation, Luteal Phase
Ovarian follicular phase lasts from day ___ through day ____.
1 to 13
In the ovarian follicular phase, it is characterized by increasing levels of estradiol production from granulosa cells, reaching a high around day ____.
The ovarian follicular phase is initiated by ___.
At the end of the ovarian follicular phase, FSH and high levels of estradiol stimulate production of LH receptors in the ______.
In ovulation, FSH causes the Graafian follicle to bulge out of the ______.
LH surge begins about ______ before ovulation.
After ovulation, LH stimulates the ruptured follicle to become a ________.
Progesterone peaks about _____ week after ovulation.
In the ovarian luteal phase, it shuts down follicle development to prevent further ovulation long enough to give the secondary oocyte a chance to be ______.
In the ovarian luteal phase, it ends with degeneration of the corpus luteum around day ____.
The _______ beings with menstruation at the end of the previous ovarian cycle.
The development of the ______ is regulated by secretion of estradiol and progesterone in the ovaries.
The proliferative phase occurs while ovary is in the ______ phase.
Spiral arteries develop in the _____ phase.
The _______ also becomes more vascular and develops progesterone receptors in the proliferative phase.
The secretory phase occurs while the ovaries are in the ____ phase.
Secretion of progesterone stimulates the development of uterine glands, which store _____.
The endometrium is prepared to nourish a growing embryo if the oocyte id fertilized in the _____ phase.
The _______ phase occurs as a result of the fall in estradiol and progesterone when the corpus luteum degenerates.
In the _______ phase, arteries in the endometrium constrict, cells in the stratum functionale die, and this region is sloughed.
The contraceptive ______ for woman includes synthetic estradiol and progesterone.
Placebo pills are taken for ______ to allow menstruation.
Newer pills have reduced risk for endometrial and ovarian cancers and reduction of ____.
______ is unlikely as long as a couple has sex more than 6 days before ovulation and more than 1 day after.
A woman can time ovulation by _______.
Taking her temperature
Menopause usually occurs after the age ____.
In menopause, the symptoms are due to the loss of ______.
In menopause, ______ are produced by vasomotor disturbances.
In _____, the walls of the urethra and vagina atrophy and vaginal glands no longer produce lubrication.
After menopause, risk for atherosclerosis and ______ increases.
_____ is needed for bone deposition, so menopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis.
Adipose tissue does make a weak form of estradiol called _____.