Chapter 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (163):
1

The testes stop making testosterone by the _________, and the ovaries don't make embryonic sex hormone.

Third trimester

2

Sex hormone secretion does not occur again in either sex until the gonads are stimulated at _______.

Puberty

3

Once the sex hormone secretion occurs, the anterior pituitary begins releasing _________.

Gonadotropic hormones

4

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the ________ of both males and females with three effects.

Anterior pituitary glands

5

The stimulation of spermatogenesis, stimulation of gonadal hormone secretion, and maintenance of the structures of the gonads are the three effects of what?

FSH and LH that are produced in the anterior pituitary glands

6

The release of FSH and LH is controlled by the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the ________.

Hypothalamus

7

The regulation of FSH and LH is regulated by a negative-feedback loop where rising levels of _________ and inhibiting the GnRH release, and inhibiting the pituitary response to GnRH.

Gonadal hormone

8

Aside from the usual gonadal hormones, the gonads also secrete _______.

Inhibin

9

The inhibin is secreted by _____ in the testes.

Sertoli cells

10

The inhibin is secreted by granulosa cells of ________ follicles.

Ovarian

11

The inhibin specifically inhibits release of ____.

FSH (no effect on LH)

12

Secretion of ______ is pulsatile so FSH and LH are also pulsatile (more apparent in females than males).

GnRH

13

Frequency of pulsations affects the _______ response.

Target gland's

14

Secretion of FSH and LH is elevated at _____ and stays high for the first 6 months of postnatal life.

Birth

15

After secretion of FSH and LH is elevated at birth, it declines to almost nothing until ______.

Puberty

16

Puberty begins with a release of ______.

LH (pulsatile)

17

Puberty begins with a release of LH due to the declining sensitivity of the hypothalamus to negative feedback effects of ______.

Gonadal hormones

18

Puberty begins with a release of LH, which results in increases in ________ or estradiol-17Beta secretion.

testosterone

19

Puberty begins with a release of LH, which produce _____ sex characteristics.

Secondary

20

The secondary sex characteristics in ______ are growth spurts, breast development, and menarche (first menstrual flow).

Girls

21

The secondary sex characteristics in ____ are later growth spurts, and body, muscle, penis, testis growth.

Boys

22

The secondary sex characteristics in both sexes is body hair is stimulated by ______ from adrenal gland at puberty.

Androgens

23

Age of the onset of puberty depends on ______ and amount of body fat.

Activity levels

24

_____ is secreted by adipose cells is required for the onset of puberty.

Leptin

25

In the onset of puberty, ______ may inhibit GnRH secretion.

Exercise

26

More ______, ______ girls begin puberty later.

Active, Slimmer

27

______ from the pineal gland may play a role in onset of puberty, but this is not proven in humans.

Melatonin

28

______ is a human sexual response that is characterized by increased muscle tone, vasocongestion of sexual organs; also called arousal.

Excitation

29

_____ is a human sexual response that continues vasocongestion.

Plateau

30

____ is a human sexual response that causes contraction of the uterus/vagina and male ejaculatory organs.

Orgasm

31

____ is a human sexual response where the body returns to pre-excitation condition.

Resolution

32

Men experience a ________ where that are not able to ejaculate.

refractory period

33

The two compartments of the testes are the _____ and _______.

Seminiferous Tubules and Interstitial Tissue

34

The ______ in the testes are where spermatogenesis occurs.

Seminiferous Tubules

35

In the seminiferous tubules, the FSH receptors are found on the _______.

Sertoli Cells

36

In the seminiferous tubules, the FSH influences _______.

Spermatogenesis

37

The ________ is the testes are where Leydig cells make testosterone; also filled with blood and lymphatic capillaries.

Interstitial Tissue

38

In the interstitial tissue, the LH receptors are found on the ________.

Leydig Cells

39

In the interstitial tissue, ______ is secreted in response to LH.

Testosterone

40

______ secretion is controlled by rising testosterone secretion through negative feedback.

LH

41

______ secretion is controlled by testosterone and inhibin secretion.

FSH

42

_______ is released from the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules.

Inhibin

43

_______ is converted to its derivatives in brain cells.

Testosterone

44

_______ in converted by 5a-reductase to DHT, other androgens, or to estradiol by aromatase enzyme.

Testosterone

45

_______ is used to inhibit LH secretion.

Estradiol

46

Male and female brains are different due to the effects of ______ and ______.

Testosterone and estradiol

47

Negative feedback effects of ____ and ___ maintain a relatively constant secretion of gonadotropins in males.

Testosterone and inhibin

48

Androgen secretion declines slowly in males to a hypogonadal state by age ____.

70

49

Other factors that affect testosterone secretion are ______, ______, ______.

Physical inactivity, obesity, drugs

50

______ is secreted by Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and developing sperm.

Estradiol

51

Receptors for ______ are on Sertoli and Leydig cells, cells lining the ducts, and accessory glands.

Estradiol

52

The role in ______ is to regulate the enviornment of developing sperm, fluid reabsorption, and sealing epiphyseal plates.

Spermatogenesis

53

Growth and development of wolffian ducts into epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, urogenital sinus into prostate and male external genitalia describes the actions of what androgen in the male?

Sex Determination

54

At puberty the completion of meiotic division and early maturation of spermatids, and after puberty the maintenance of spermatogenesis describes the action for what androgen in the male?

Spermatogenesis

55

Growth and maintenance of accessory sex organs, growth of the penis, facial, and axillary hair, and body growth describes the action of what androgen in the male?

Secondary Sex Characteristic

56

Protein synthesis and muscle growth, growth of bones and other organs, and erythropoiesis is the action for what androgen in the male?

Anabolic Effects

57

In _______, germ cells from the yolk sac migrate to the testes early in embryonic development.

Spermatogenesis

58

Diploid spermatogonia first go through _____ to increase the number of cells.

Mitosis

59

In spermatogenesis, one of the daughter cells continues through meiosis and the other daughter cell remains a _______.

Spermatogonial cell

60

In spermatogenesis, after meiosis 1 it goes to 2 secondary _____.

Spermatocytes

61

In spermatogenesis, after meiosis 2 there are 4 _______.

Spermatids

62

In spermatogenesis, the process occurs as the cells move toward the _____ of the seminiferous tubules.

Lumen

63

_____ is the maturation of spermatids into functioning spermatoza.

Spermiogenesis

64

Protamines replace ____ associated with DNA.

Histones

65

Sperm development requires ____ cells.

Sertoli

66

_______ create a blood-testis barrier controlling what can enter the seminiferous tubules and preventing the immune system from developing antibodies against the sperm.

Sertoli Cells

67

The Sertoli cells phagocytose some of the spermatid ____ in spermiogenesis creating residual bodies.

Cytoplasm

68

Sertoli cells secrete ________ into the seminiferous tubule lumen. This binds to testosterone and concentrates it in the tubule.

Androgen-binding Protein

69

Androgen binding protein production is stimulated by _____ and only Sertoli cells have these receptors.

FSH

70

_______ stimulates speratogenesis and spermiogenesis.

Testosterone

71

______ is required to stimulate meiosis and early spermatid maturation.

Testosterone

72

Testosterone is secreted by the _______ after stimulation by LH.

Leydig cells

73

_____ enhances spermatogenesis through the action of the Sertoli cells that are stimulated to make ABP, which concentrates the testosterone levels.

FSH

74

_____ ensures optimal fertility.

FSH

75

Spermatids move from the seminiferous tubules --> rete testis --> _______ --> epidiymis.

Efferent ductules

76

The ______ is the site of sperm maturation and storage. It is where sperm becomes motile.

Epididymis

77

In ejaculation, spermatoza move from the epididymis --> ductus deferens --> _______ -->urethra.

Ejaculatory Duct

78

The seminal vesicle and prostate gland add fluid to the sperm to form _____.

Semen

79

Seminal fluid contains ______ (energy for sperm).

Fructose

80

Prostate fluid contains citric acid, ______, and coagulation proteins.

Calcium

81

Erection results from the blood flow into erectile tissues of the penis: _______ and _________.

Corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum

82

In erection, due to the parasympathetic nerve, induced vasodilation of the arterioles leading to the _______.

Corpus cavernosa

83

In erection, ______ serves as the NT.

Nitric oxide

84

The Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase to produce cGMP --> closes Ca2+ channels --> decreases the cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels --> _______.

Relaxes muscles

85

Venous outflow of blood is partially blocked during an _______.

Erection

86

Erections are controlled by the _______ and the sacral region of the spinal cord.

Hypothalamus

87

Erections can also occur due to conscious sexual thought. ______-->spinal cord-->penis

or sensory stimulation. ______-->spinal cord-->penis

Hypothalamus

Penis

88

______ is the movement of semen into the urethra.

Emission

89

_____ is the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra.

Ejaculation

90

Emission and ejaculation are both under the ______ nervous system control.

Sympathetic

91

Contraction of smooth muscles in the tubules, seminal vesicle, prostate, and muscles at base of the penis is involved in _______.

Ejaculation

92

A sperm count <20 million/ml semen is called ______ and is considered less fertile.

Oligospermia

93

Oligospermia may be caused by ______, ______, or anabolic steroids.

Heat, Drugs

94

A _______ is the most widely used and reliable form of male contraception.

Vasectomy

95

In a vasectomy, the _____ is cut and tied to prohibit sperm transport.

Vas Deferens

96

A vasectomy does not affect testosterone production or ______.

Ejaculation

97

_____ are the female gonads, and is the site of oocyte and steroid production.

Ovaries

98

The _____ have fimbriae that partially wrap around the ovaries and "catch" the oocyte after ovulation.

Uterine Tubes

99

What is the most common site of fertilization?

The Uterine Tubes

100

The _____ is the site of embryonic development.

Uterus

101

What are the the layers of the uterus?

Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium, Cervix

102

The _______ is the inner layer of the uterus, and is where the embryo implants and develops. It is made of the stratum basale and stratum functionale.

Endometrium

103

The ______ is the middle muscle layer of the uterus, and it contracts to expel baby at birth.

Myometrium

104

The ______ is the outer connective tissue layer of the uterus.

Perimetrium

105

The _____ is the narrow bottom region of the uterus.

Cervix

106

The _____ is an organ of copulation that opens between the labia (majora and minora).

Vagina

107

The ______ is the erectile tissue in the female reproductive organs.

Clitoris

108

Toward the end of gestation, a female's oogonia begin meiosis to produce _____.

Primary oocytes

109

The ovaries of a newborn girl have _____ primary oocytes.

2 million

110

By puberty, the ovaries of a girl is cut to about ________ primary oocytes.

400,000

111

Only about ____ primary oocytes will be ovulated in her lifetime.

400

112

Primary oocytes are contained within _____ that have one layer of cells.

Primary follicles

113

In response to FSH, some of the primary follicles grow to produce many layers of ____.

Granulosa cells

114

Some primary follicles develop fluid-filled vesicles called _______.

Secondary Follicles

115

Continued growth results in fused vesicles to form a single antrum is called a mature ______.

Graafian follicle

116

Cell layers called the _____ and _____ form around the oocytes and serve as a barrier for sperm entry.

Corona Radiata and Zona Pellucida

117

Continued development of one Graafian follicles occurs because of stimulation from FSH, _______, and paracrine signals.

Estradiol

118

As a Graafian follicle grows, the primary oocyte finishes meiosis 1 to become a _______.

Secondary oocyte

119

The secondary oocyte begins in meiosis 2, but stops at ______.

Metaphase 2

120

By the ____ to _____ day after the first day of menstruation, one follicle becomes a mature Graafian follicle.

10th to 14th

121

The secondary follicles that do not become a Graafian follicle regress and become a atretic, a type of ______.

Apoptosis

122

A mature Graafian follicle is protected from atresis and forms a bulge on the surface of the _____.

Ovary

123

After ovulation, the remaining follicle become a ________.

Corpus Luteum

124

A corpus luteum secretes both ____ and _____.

Estradiol and Progesterone

125

Anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH controlled by GnRH and negative feedback from _____ hormones.

Ovarian

126

Aside from stimulating the development of the follicles, FSH simulates ______ production in the follicles.

Estradiol

127

The bigger the follicle, the more ______ it releases.

Estradiol

128

The _____ describes the 28 day cycle of endometrial buildup and sloughing in response to ovarian hormones.

Menstrual Cycle

129

What are the three phases in the menstrual cycle?

Menstrual, Proliferative, Secretory

130

Follicular changes in the ovaries can be broken into what three phases?

Follicular Phase, Ovulation, Luteal Phase

131

Ovarian follicular phase lasts from day ___ through day ____.

1 to 13

132

In the ovarian follicular phase, it is characterized by increasing levels of estradiol production from granulosa cells, reaching a high around day ____.

12

133

The ovarian follicular phase is initiated by ___.

FSH

134

At the end of the ovarian follicular phase, FSH and high levels of estradiol stimulate production of LH receptors in the ______.

Graafian follicle

135

In ovulation, FSH causes the Graafian follicle to bulge out of the ______.

Ovary wall

136

LH surge begins about ______ before ovulation.

24 hours

137

After ovulation, LH stimulates the ruptured follicle to become a ________.

Corpus Luteum

138

Progesterone peaks about _____ week after ovulation.

1

139

In the ovarian luteal phase, it shuts down follicle development to prevent further ovulation long enough to give the secondary oocyte a chance to be ______.

Fertilized

140

In the ovarian luteal phase, it ends with degeneration of the corpus luteum around day ____.

28

141

The _______ beings with menstruation at the end of the previous ovarian cycle.

Menstrual cycle

142

The development of the ______ is regulated by secretion of estradiol and progesterone in the ovaries.

Endometrium

143

The proliferative phase occurs while ovary is in the ______ phase.

Follicular

144

Spiral arteries develop in the _____ phase.

Proliferative

145

The _______ also becomes more vascular and develops progesterone receptors in the proliferative phase.

Endometrium

146

The secretory phase occurs while the ovaries are in the ____ phase.

Luteal

147

Secretion of progesterone stimulates the development of uterine glands, which store _____.

Glycogen

148

The endometrium is prepared to nourish a growing embryo if the oocyte id fertilized in the _____ phase.

Secretory

149

The _______ phase occurs as a result of the fall in estradiol and progesterone when the corpus luteum degenerates.

Menstrual

150

In the _______ phase, arteries in the endometrium constrict, cells in the stratum functionale die, and this region is sloughed.

Menstrual

151

The contraceptive ______ for woman includes synthetic estradiol and progesterone.

Pill

152

Placebo pills are taken for ______ to allow menstruation.

1 week

153

Newer pills have reduced risk for endometrial and ovarian cancers and reduction of ____.

Osteoporosis

154

______ is unlikely as long as a couple has sex more than 6 days before ovulation and more than 1 day after.

Pregnancy

155

A woman can time ovulation by _______.

Taking her temperature

156

Menopause usually occurs after the age ____.

50

157

In menopause, the symptoms are due to the loss of ______.

Estradiol

158

In menopause, ______ are produced by vasomotor disturbances.

Hot flashes

159

In _____, the walls of the urethra and vagina atrophy and vaginal glands no longer produce lubrication.

Menopause

160

After menopause, risk for atherosclerosis and ______ increases.

Osteoporosis

161

_____ is needed for bone deposition, so menopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

Estradiol

162

Adipose tissue does make a weak form of estradiol called _____.

Estrone

163

Heavier women have a reduced risk of ___.

Osteoporosis