Test #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #1 Deck (108):
1

Which of the following is NOT true of dendrites?

Transmits action potentials toward the cell body

2

What of the following is true of axons?

Originates at the axon hillock on the cell body

3

Which of the following is NOT a structural classification?

Motor Neuron

4

A bundle of axons in the CNS is called?

Tract

5

The myelin sheaths of PNS neurons are produced by?

Schwann Cells

6

The blood brain barrier results mostly from the action of ____, at type of glial cell.

Astrocytes

7

The membrane of resting nerve cells is more person to _______ ions than ____ ions.

Potassium, Sodium

8

Ion channels that open in response to depolarization are called?

Voltage gated channels

9

During an action potential?

Na+ influx causes depolarization

10

Which ion's movements is responsible for repolarization?

Outward diffusion of K+

11

Action potentials would be conducted most rapidly by?

a 40 mm diameter myelinated axon

12

_____ synapses occur between axons of presynaptic cells and dendrites and postsynaptic cells.

Axodendritic

13

Neurotransmitter release would be inhibited by?

Blocking Ca2+ influx in the axon terminal

14

What of the following is NOT true of EPSP's?

They have a refractory period

15

What action produces an IPSP on the postsynaptic membrane?

opening of Cl- channels into the neuron

16

Destruction of the embryonic _____ will prevent formation of the nervous system.

Ectoderm

17

Which of the following is the correct list of the lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Insula, Occipital

18

Damage to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum would limit?

Hearing

19

Which type of EEG pattern in an awake adult is indicative of brain damage?

Delta Waves

20

During ______ sleep, dreams that can be recalled are most likely to occur.

REM

21

Which of the following neurotransmitters is NOT associated with cerebral nuclei function?

Acetylcholine

22

Which area of the brain has shown to be involved in complex problem solving?

Prefrontal cortex

23

The majority of sensory information is relayed to the cerebrum by the ___?

Thalamus

24

Except for the sense of _____, all sensory information is relayed through the thalamus.

Smell

25

Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus?

Controls motor coordination

26

The suprachiasmatic nuclei

All of the choices are correct

27

Visual reflexes would be impaired by damage to the?

Superior Colliculi

28

A cranial nerve with only sensory fibers is the?

Vestibulochoclear nerve

29

Which cranial nerve is vital for the functioning of the visceral organs?

Vagus

30

There are ___ pairs of cranial nerves and ____ pairs of spinal nerves.

12, 31

31

Autonomic motor nerves do NOT innervate

Skeletal muscle

32

The autonomic nervous system

is not usually under conscious control

33

Where do autonomic postganglionic neurons originate?

Peripheral ganglia

34

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Has terminal ganglia embedded in the visceral effectors

35

Cocaine is a ______ drug, meaning that it promotes sympathetic nerve effects.

Sympathomimetic

36

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

utilizes acteylcholine as a preganglionic neurotransmitter

37

____ is released by most postganglionic sympathetic nerves.

Norepinephrine

38

The second messenger mediating the effects of norepinephrine on the heart would be?

Increased cyclic AMP

39

Epinephrine is a

sympathomimetic hormone

40

All adrenergic receptors act via?

G proteins

41

M2 receptors in the heart?

decrease heart rate

42

Which of the following organs is dually innervated?

Urinary bladder

43

Which type of receptor responds to physical deformation of its cell membrane?

Mechanoreceptors

44

Cutaneous receptors respond to stimuli that are outside the body and are therefore also?

Exteroceptors

45

As the magnitude of a generator potential increases the ____ of action potentials in the sensory neuron increases.

Frequency

46

As _____ increases, the two point threshold decreases.

Receptor density

47

Sensations are sharpened via?

Lateral inhibition

48

Chemoreceptors that respond to chemical changes in the external environment are called?

Exteroceptors

49

Gustducin

Is related to transducin of the eye

50

Which taste modality involved membrane receptors that are coupled to G-proteins?

Umami

51

What extracellular ion is necessary for release of neurotransmitter for salty and sour tastes?

Ca2+

52

Which of the special sense is most closely linked with the limbic system?

Olfaction

53

The structures that function in equilibrium are known as the?

Vestibular apparatus

54

What characteristics does the endolymph of the membranous labyrinth have that is unusual?

It has a higher than normal concentration of K+

55

The cupula is part of the?

Semicircular canals

56

The hertz is a measure of?

Frequency

57

Vibrations in the stapes directly induce vibrations in the ?

Oval window

58

The scala vestibuli of the cochlea is filled with?

Perilymph

59

Which of the following is NOT part of the organ of Corti?

Vestibular membrane

60

Which of the following is NOT true of outer hair cells of the organ of Corti?

relay sound information by way of the vestibulochoclear nerve

61

Which of the following is the correct neural pathway for hearing?

Vestibulocochlear nerve, medulla oblongata, inferior colliculus, thalamus, temporal lobe

62

Sensory neurons ?

are psuedounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS

63

Which division of the nervous system innervated involuntary effectors?

Autonomic nervous system

64

The myelin sheaths of CNS neurons are produced by?

Oligodendrocytes

65

Action potential transmission in the PNS is decreased if which cells are damaged?

Schwann cells

66

The average resting membrane potential of an axon is?

-70 mV

67

The minimum depolarization needed to open Na+ gates is called the ?

Threshold

68

What process is needed to return a membrane to its resting membrane potential with all ions in the correct locations?

Na+/K+ pump

69

The binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptor protein causes ion channels to open in the post-synaptic membrane. What type of gates are these?

Chemicaly-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates

70

What is present at the axon hillock that allows the production of action potentials?

Voltage gated channels

71

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are produced by?

Glutamic acid

72

The most common neurotransmitter in the brain is?

GABA

73

The function of _____ neurons is to link sensory stimuli with the appropriate motor responses.

Association

74

_______% of total blood flow to the body per minute foes to the brain.

15

75

What type of neurons are found in the precentral gyrus?

Upper motor neurons

76

A raised area on the cerebral cortex is a ?

Gyrus

77

Aphasias are most often associated with damage to ____ and ___ areas.

Broca's and Wernicke's

78

The conversion of short term memory to long term memory is called?

Memory consolidation

79

Knowing how to tie your shoes is an example of ____ memory.

Procedural

80

The _____ is involved in the improvement of memory when the memory has an emotional content.

Amygdala

81

Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus/

controls reactions to odors

82

Releasing and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary are produced in the?

Hypothalamus

83

Ablation of the ____ in the midbrain would impair the ability to respond to sounds.

Inferior colliculi

84

The medulla oblongata?

Contrains numerous vital centers

85

Which of the following is NOT a vital function of the medulla oblongata?

Thirst control

86

Reflex arcs?

may have a single synapse

87

Somatic motor reflexes involve?

Contraction of skeletal muscles

88

The paravertebral and collateral ganglia are associated with the ____ division of the autonomic nervous system.

Sympathetic

89

What occurs when one sympathetic preganglionic neuron synapses on several postganglionic neurons?

Divergence

90

_____ ganglia are associated with the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

Terminal

91

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?

has terminal ganglia embedded in the visceral effectors

92

Bright light would stimulate regulation of pupil diameter through ____ nerves.

Parasympathetic

93

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?

utilizes acetylcholine as a preganglionic neurotransmitter

94

Which organ receives only sympathetic innervation?

All apply

95

Postganglionic ___ nerves release acetylcholine.

Parasympathetic

96

"Synapses en passant" refers to the fact that postganglionic autonomic neurons release neurotransmitter?

Along the length of the axon

97

Blocking B2 adrenergic receptors prevents airway?

Dilation

98

The medulla oblongata controls many autonomic activities through the?

Vagus Nerve

99

Damage to cutaneous receptors would limit the ability to detect all of the following except?

Body position

100

Which type of receptor responds to physical deformation of its cell membrane?

Mechanoreceptors

101

The capsaicin receptor serves as both an ion channel and a receptor for the molecule in chili peppers that causes sensation of?

Heat and Pain

102

_____ is the perception of pain in a somatic location that is caused by damage to an internal organ and not by the activity somatic nociceptors.

Referred Pain

103

How many neurons conduct sensory impulses from the periphery to the postcentral gyrus?

Three

104

Which of the following are NOT types of tongue papillae?

Glossoform papillae

105

Which of the following is NOT part of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear?

Cochlea

106

The bending of the stereocilia of the organ of Corti opens membran channels that are permeable to mainly ___, which causes depolarization.

K+

107

Spatial summation?

occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell

108

Which poison inhibits glycine receptors?

Strychnine