Ch 11 - State And Local Gov Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11 - State And Local Gov Deck (75):
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Constitution

A written plan which sets go a fork if government and establishes its basic principles

1

The oldest written constitution still in force

Massachusetts

2

Which state had voters ratify its constitution

Massachusetts

3

Preamble

A short introductory statement telling why the constitution was written

4

Bill of rights

Provisions listing the basic rights of the people

5

Description of state government

Provisions for the three separate branches of state government

6

Description of local government

Provisions for local subdivisions if state government

7

General provisions

Provisions dealing with voting qualifications and elections, taxes and appropriation if funds, education, etc.

8

Provisions for change

Provisions dealing with the process by which the constitution may be amended or revised

9

Revision

Major change in a state constitution

10

Amendment

Minor change in a state constitution

11

4 steps of a constitutional convention

1. Voters approve calling of convention
2. Voters eject delegates to convention
3. Delegates revise old constitution or propose a new one
4. The voters ratify or reject the new or revised constitution

12

Initiative

The process by which voters propose an amendment

13

Referendum

An election in which the voters of a state approve or reject an amendment

14

Plurality

More votes then any other candidate receives

15

Impeachment

When the legislature removes the governor

16

Recall

When the voters remove the governor

17

Pardon

Free an offender from legal responsibility for a crime

18

Reprieve

Temporary postponement of a sentence

19

Commute

To reduce a sentence

20

Parole

Free a prisoner before his entire term has been served.

21

Ex officio

By virtue if office or position

22

Item veto

Power to veto only part of a bill

23

Executive orders

Orders that dictate how a law should be carried out

24

Only state with unicameral legislature

Nebraska

25

Reynolds v. Sims series of cases

The Supreme Court ruled that apportionment of both houses of state legislatures must be based upon population

26

Constituent powers

The power to propose constitutional amendments

27

Direct primary

Voters choose the political party's nominee

28

Joint committees

Made up of members of both houses of state legislatures, help 2 houses agree

29

Mandatory referendum

When acts of the state legislature MUST be referred to the voters for approval or rejection

30

Courts of record

Courts in which a transcript is made of the trial proceedings

31

Court clerk

Keeps courts records

32

Bailiff

The police officer for the court

33

Court of last resort

The highest court to which a case may be appealed

34

County government

Largest unit of local government

35

The states fundamental law

The state constitution

36

3 states w/out Secretary of State

Utah, ak, Hawaii

37

Attorney general

States chief legal officer, chief prosecutor

38

Auditor or comptroller

Sees that funds are spent properly

39

Baker v. Carr

Court ruled that federal courts could have jurisdiction in cases involving state apportionment

40

Rural lowest state courts

Justice of the peace courts

41

Justice of the peace

Minor offenses, no legal training, unpaid but keeps part of legal fees, popularly elected

42

Urban lowest state court

Magistrate or police courts

43

Magistrate

No jury, 4-6 year term, low salary, sometimes a lawyer

44

Special small claims courts

For collecting small sums of money

45

General trial courts

Second level of state courts

46

Jury

A group of people selected to ascertain the truth on the basis of evidence presented to them

47

Most common county board

Board of commissioners

48

County assessor

Appraises taxable property within the county

49

Clerk/recorder

Maintains county records and issues licenses

50

County manager plan

Mirrors federal system

51

Selectmen

Popularly elected board members that handle administrative matters between town meetings

52

Incorporated

Designated as a legal governmental organization

53

City charter

A legal document granted by the state which outlines a fork of government for the city

54

Mayor council form

Popularly elected legislative council members

55

Commission form

5 popularly elected commissioners, exec and leg branches

56

Council manager form

Popularly elected legislative council appoints executive manager

57

Zoning

Dividing a city into numerous zones and regulating the use of property in each zone

58

3 types of zones

Residential, commercial, and industrial

59

Annexing

Adding suburban areas

60

Suburbs

Developed areas outside city limits

61

Special districts

Districts that provide one or several government services but do not follow city and county lines

62

General sales tax

Applies to the sale of most products

63

Selective sales tax

Singles out specific items to be taxed

64

Regressive tax

Places greatest burden on poor

65

Progressive tax

Places greatest burden on rich

66

Uniform tax

People pay a certain fixed percentage of profits

67

Inheritance tax

Levied against a persons inherited share of an estate

68

The chief source of income did local governments

Property tax

69

Real property

Buildings, land, improvements on land and buildings

70

Personal property

Personal possessions

71

Tangible personal property

Visible and easily valued

72

Intangible personal property

Bank accounts, stocks, bonds

73

Higher value (market or assessed)

Market

74

Severance tax

For the removal of natural resources