Ch. 13 - Enzymes (CHS - ALS) (RVSP) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 13 - Enzymes (CHS - ALS) (RVSP) Deck (44):
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Enzyme class of Cholinesterase (CHS)

Hydrolase

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2 types of CHS

- Pseudocholinesterase (PChe)/acylcholine acylhydrolase
- True cholinesterase/Acetylcholinesterase (AChe)

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Tissue sources of pseudocholinesterase

Liver (main)
Pancreas
Serum
Heart
White matter of CNS

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CHS type as muscle relaxant in surgery

Pseudocholinesterase

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Tissue sources of Acetylcholinesterase

RBCs
Nerve tissue/cells
Brain

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Enzyme for transmission of nerve impulses

Acetylcholinesterase

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Rxn equation of acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholine --acetylcholinesterase--> choline + acetic acid

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Conditions of decreased levels of acetylcholinesterase

Parenchymatous liver diseases
Insecticide poisoning (organophosphorous)
Metastatic carcinoma
Malnutrition
Anesthetic overdose
Heart failure
Acute infection

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3 mtds for CHS

Michel mtd (Electrometric mtd)
Manometric mtd
Ellman Technique (Photometric Enzyme Reaction)

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CHS mtd; measures decrease in pH resulting from liberation of acetic acid

Michel Mtd (Electrometric mtd)

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CHS mtd; measures the liberation of CO2 from the formation of acetic acid as acetylcholine is hydrolyzed

Manometric mtd

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Substrate used in Ellman technique for CHS

Butylcholine (thiolester)

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Most used mtd for CHS

Ellman technique (Photometric Enzyme Reaction)

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Wavelength in Ellman Technique for CHS

410 nm

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Rxn equation in Ellman technique for CHS

Butylcholine + DTNB --> 5-MNBA

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DTNB

5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid

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MNBA

5-monothio-nitrobenzoic acid

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Enzyme class of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)

Hydrolase

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Enzyme for hydrolysis of N-terminal residues from certain peptides & amides containing free amino groups

LAP

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Tissue sources of LAP

Bile
Urine
Serum

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Conditions of increased levels of LAP

Pancreatitis
Hepatobiliary diseases (hepatitis & cirrhosis)
Obstructive jaundice
Metastatic carcinoma of the liver

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Mtd for LAP

Goldbarg and Rutenberg Mtd

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Characteristics of the Goldbarg and Rutenberg mtd for LAP

Fluorometric
Colorimetric

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Fluorochrome dyes used in the Goldbarg and Rutenberg mtd for LAP

- FITC (flourescein isothiocyanate)
- acridine orange
- rhodamine

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Enzyme class of Ornithine Carbamoyl Transferase (OCT)

Transferase

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Tissue source OCT

Liver

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Enzyme for the reversible conversion of ornithine --> citrulline (synthesis of urea)

Ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT)

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Conditions of increased levels of OCT

- cirrhosis
- heart failure
- acute viral hepatitis
- metastatic carcinoma (slight increase)
- delirium tremens
- obstructive jaundice
- cholecystitis

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2 mtds for OCT

- Reichard and Reichard Mtd
- Colorimetric mtd

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Isotopic and microdiffusion technique for OCT

Reichard and Reichard Mtd

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Other name for the Reichard and Reichard mtd for OCT

Isotopic and Microdiffusion technique

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Most commonly requested enzyme in the lab

Aldolase (ALS)

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Enzyme class of aldolase (ALS)

Lyase

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Rxn equation of ALS

Fructose-1,6-diphosphate --ALS--> glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate

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Enzyme important in the breakdown of glucose to lactic acid (glycolytic breakdown)

ALS

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Tissue sources of ALS

- liver (most)
- Skeletal muscles
- heart muscles
- RBCs

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Isoenzymes of ALS

Isoenzyme A
Isoenzyme B
Isoenzyme C

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Tissue sources of ALS Isoenzyme A

- Liver (most)
- RBCs
- kidneys
- intestine
- muscles

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Substance that reacts with ALS Isoenzyme A

PLD2

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Main tissue source of ALS Isoenzyme B

Liver

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Main tissue source of ALS Isoenzyme C

Brain (hippocampus and Purkinje cells)

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ALS isoenzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of alcohol

Isoenzyme C

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Conditions of increased levels of ALS

- progressive muscular dystrophy
- inflammatory muscle disease
- liver diseases/necrosis
- MI
- Pulmonary infarction
- malignancy
- megaloblastic anemia

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Principle for ALS mtds

Rate at which thioses are formed/rate at which dinitrophenylhydrazone is formed