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Flashcards in Sodium and Potassium Deck (52):
1

Has a concentration 20x greater inside the cells than outside

Potassium

2

the most abundant cation in the ECF

Sodium

3

Functions of Potassium

-regulation of neuromuscular excitability
-regulation of contraction of the heart
-regulation of ICF volume and H+ conc

4

represent of 90% of all extracellular cations

Sodium

5

Organ that is important in the regulation of K+ balance

Kidney

6

Three processes in the regulation of Sodium

-intake of water
-excretion of water, as affected by ADH
-blood volume status

7

True or false. Sodium concentration in the ECF is much smaller than inside the cells

False

8

Decreased serum Na+ concentration (less than 135mmol/L)

Hyponatremia

9

One of the most common electrolyte disorders

Hyponatremia

10

causes of hyponatremia

-increased sodium loss
-increased water retention
-water imbalance

11

Symptoms of Hyponatremia

-gastroinestinal
-neuropsyhchiatric
-dba sbi niya nde na itatanong mga symptoms?

12

TReatment of hyponatremia

-fluid restriction
-administration of hypertonic saline
-AVPR antagonist Conivaptan

13

method of choice for sodium determination

ion slective electrode (ISE)

14

Increase in water retention associated with pulmonary disease, malignancies, CNS disorders, infections or trauma

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

15

occur when Na is measured using indirect ISE

pseudohyponatremia

16

hyponatrmia with low osmolality

-increased sodium loss
-increased water retention

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hyponatrmia with normal osmolality

-increased in non sodium cations
-pseudohyponatremia
-pseudohyperkalemia

18

non sodium cations

Li, K, Mg, Ca, gamma globulins

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hyponatremia with high osmolality

-hyperglycemia
-mannitol infusion

20

excess loss of water relative to sodium loss; decreased water intake; increased sodium intake or retention

hypernatremia

21

causes of hypernatremia

- diabetes insipidus
-renal tubular disorders
-prolonged diarrhea
-profuse sweating
-severe burns
-

22

correlation with sodium osmolality (<300 mOsm/kg)

diabetes insipidus

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correlation with osmollality (300-700 mOsm/kg

partial defect in ADH release

24

correlation with osmolality (>700 mOsm/kg)

loss of thirst, insensible loss of water, GI loss of hypotonic fluid, excess sodium intake

25

People with decreased water intake

-older persons
-infants
-mentally impaired

26

increased sodium intake or retention

-hyperaldosteronism
-sodium bicarbonate excess
-dialysis fluid excess

27

Marked hemolysis in sodium determination is caused by

dilution

28

marked hemolysis in sodium determination means

falsely decreased; decreased level of sodium

29

Reference method for sodium determination

Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

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color of sodium in flame emission spectrophotometer

intense yellow

31

Two electrodes used in ion selective electrode

-reference electrode
-measuring electrode

32

only 2% in plasma

potassium

33

Causes of hypokalemia

-GI loss
-renal loss
-cellular shift
-decreased intake

34

<3.4 mmol/L of potassium

hypokalemia

35

regulation of potassium

-hypoxia, hypomagnesia, digoxin
-insulin
-catecholamine

36

Diuretic used in renal loss

Thiazides

37

Treatment of hypokalemia

-oral KCl
-IV replacement
-diet with high K
-banana

38

Causes of hyperkalemia

- decreased renal excretion
-cellular shift
-increased intake
-artifactual

39

Artifactual causes of hyperkalemia

-sample hemolysis
-thrombocytosis
-prolonged tourniquet use
-excessive fist clenching

40

increases the cellular uptake of K+

cellular shift

41

promotes the entry of K+ into skeletal muscle and liver cell

insulin overdose

42

diseases in decreased renal excretion

-acute or chronic renal failure
-hypoaldosteronism
-Addison's disease

43

Produces a hyperosmolar plasma that pulls water and potassium from cells

Diabetes Mellitus

44

Drugs for hyperkalemia

-captopril
-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
-spironolactone
-digoxin
-cyclosporine
-heparin theraphy

45

inhibits renal response to aldosterone

cyclosporine

46

inhibits aldosterone secretion

heparin theraphy

47

treatment of hyperkalemia

administration of sodium bicarbonate, glucose or insulin

48

sources of error in potassium determination

-excessive fist clenching
-exercising the arms prior to venipuncture
-storage on ice promotes release of potassium from cells

49

most common cause of artifactual hyperkalemia

hemolysis

50

spx of choice preferred in cases of thrombocytosis in potassium determination

plasma

51

reference method of potassium determination

AAS

52

colorimetric method of potassium detrermination

Hoffman method (sodium tetraphenylboron or sodium cobaltinitrite) boron ba yun???