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Flashcards in Intro Electrolytes plus FE Deck (52):
1

Storage form of Fe

Ferritin

2

Where is iron stored

Liver, spleen, bone marrow

3

Iron transport protein

Transferrin

4

Aggregates of ferritin

Hemosiderin

5

Significantly high levels of iron

Iron overload

6

Causes of iron overload

Hemolytic anemia
Lead poisoning
Pernicious anemia
Acute hepatitis

7

Measures transferrin level

Total iron binding capacity

8

Significantly low levels of iron

Iron deficiency

9

Causes of iron deficiency

Chronic blood loss
Uremia
Impaired release of iron from RES due to infection
Acute hemorrhage

10

Explain serum iron analysis

Acidification using HCl to convert ferrous ion to ferric ion. Addition of glycolic acid or ascorbic acid to reduce ferric ion to shit (d ko mbsa HO). Change in solution's color as the color indicator, tripyridyltriazine (TPTZ) or bathophenanthroline

11

It is involved in the transport of oxygen like phosphate

Ironnn

12

N.V. For iron

M: 66-170 ug/dL
F: 50-170 ug/dL

13

Ions capable of carrying an electric charge

Electrolytes

14

2 types of ions based on their electrical charge

Cations (+)Anions (-)

15

Explain ions migrating capabilities.

Cations migrate towards the cathode.
Anions migrate towards the anode.

16

Electrolytes involved in volume and osmotic regulation

Na+, Cl-, K+

17

Electrolytes involved in myocardial rhythm and contractility

K+, Mg2+, Ca2+

18

Electrolytes acting as cofactors in enzyme activation

Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+

19

Electrolytes involved in the regulation of ATPase ion pumps

Mg2+, Na+, K+

20

Electrolytes involved in acid-base balance

HCO3-, K+, Cl-

21

Electrolytes involved in blood coagulation

Mg2+, Ca2+

22

Electolytes involved in neuromuscular excitability

K+, Mg2+, Ca2+

23

Electrolytes involved in the production and use of ATP from glucose

Mg2+, PO4-

24

Processes in which electrolytes are essential.

Volume and osmotic regulation
Myocardial rhythm and contractility
Cofactors in enzyme regulation
Regulation of ATPase ion pumps
Acid-base balance
Blood coagulation
Neuromuscular excitability
Production and use of ATP from glucose

25

Women have lower average water content than males bec?

Higher fat content

26

Average water content of the human body

40-75% but also depends on body weight

27

Fluid inside the cells

Intracellular fluid

28

Water that Surrounds the cells in the tissue

Interstitial cell fluid

29

With energy; acts against concentration gradient

Active transport

30

Accounts for about 1/3 of total body water

Extracellular fluid

31

The passive movement of ions across a membrane

Diffusion

32

Percentage of water in normal plasma

93%

33

Water in plasma

Intravascular extracellular fluid

34

Normal plasma osmolality

Approx. 275-295m Osm/kg of plasma H2

35

A physical property of a solution that is based on the concentration of solutes per kilogram of solvent expressed as millimoles per kg of solvent (w/w)

Osmolality

36

Measured in millimoles per liter (w/v)

Osmolarity

37

Osmolarity is inaccurate in cases of:

Hyperlipidemia and hyperproteinemia
For urine specimens
In presence of osmotically active substances (ex. alcohol and mannitol)

38

Enumerate the transport processes

Active transportPassive transport

39

High osmolality means that there is less water than solute

Water deficit

40

Low osmolality means that there is more water than solute

Water excess

41

Hypernatremia means that there is less water than sodium

Water deficit

42

Hyponatremia means that there is more water than sodium

Water excess

43

ADH effect on water

ADH prevents water loss

44

ADH is produced where?

Hypothalamus but stored and released by the posterior pituitary gland

45

Explain osmolality regulation/correlation

If High osmolality is sensed, hypothalamus is stimulated to produce ADH and the sensation of thirst. Being thirsty, one is compelled to consume more fluids not unless one if of old age, an infant, with mental impairment or just lazy. Consuming more fluids will increase water content in ECF that will dilute elevated solute and will eventually lower osmolality.

46

It is the parameter to which the hypothalamus responds

Osmolality

47

Sodium concentration in plasma is affected by:

OsmolalityBlood volume

48

Clinical significance of osmolality

-the parameter to which hypothalamus responds-affects the sodium concentration in plasma

49

Shits that have Normally high osmolality

Sodium, urea, glucose

50

How: Calculation of osmolality

D ko rin maintindihan, pakibasa na lang tapos explain niyo sakin. Thanks.

51

An estimate of the true osmolality or to determine the osmolal gap -the difference bet the measurement and calculated osmolality -indirectly indicates the presence of the osmotically active substances other than sodium, urea or glucose

Calculation of osmolality????

52

Reference ranges of water

Serum: 275-295 mOsm/kg
Urine (24hr): 300-900 mOsm/kg
Urine/serum ratio: 1.0-3.0
Random urine: 50-1200 mOsm/kg
Osmolal gap: 5-10 mOsm/kg