Chapter 13 - Enzymes Flashcards Preview

Clinical Chemistry 2 > Chapter 13 - Enzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Enzymes Deck (194):
0

are all enzymes proteins?

yes

1

these are rxn catalysts

enzymes

2

the greek word of enzyme means

in yeast

3

primary structure refers to

sequence of amino acids

4

secondary structure refers to

alpha helix
beta pleated sheets

5

tertiary structure is

folding/3D

6

kelan may quaternary ang protein?

>1 polypeptid

7

substance acted upon

substrate

8

found in enzyme; where substrate reacts

active site

9

found in enzyme; for regulation, inhibition etc

allosteric site

10

same function with the enzyme but in different form

isoenzyme

11

how are isoenzymes differentiated

electrophersis
solubility
heat stability
chemical inhibition

12

isoenzymes are different in ______ structure and same in _______ structure

primary; tertiary

13

non-CHON necessary for enzymatic activity

cofactors

14

type of cofactors

coenzyme
activator

15

organic type of cofactors

coenzyme

16

inorganic type of cofactors

activators

17

examples of activators

Mg
Ca
Cl
Cu
Co
Fe

18

examples of coenzymes

biotin
NAD
thiamine
pyrophosphate
lipoic acid
flavin

19

coenzyme bound tightly to enzyme

prosthetic group

20

enzyme portionbound to prosthetic group

apoenzyme

21

prosthetic group + apoenzyme

holoenzyme

22

inactive form of an enzyme

proenzyme

23

classification of enzymes

oxidoreductase
transferases
hydrolases
lyases
isomerases
ligases

24

what is the first digit in a pn enzyme's code

classification of enzyme

25

what is the second digit in an enzyme's code

subclass

26

responsible for the nomenclature of enzymes

IUB-EC

27

standard name of enzymes can be

substrate + "ase"
reaction + "ase"

28

enzyme responsible for oxidation reduction

oxidoreductase

29

enzyme responsible for the transfer of shit i don't know what shit

transferase

30

enzyme responsible for hydrolysis

di ko alam eh

31

enzyme responsible for the removal of a group without hydrolysis

lyases

32

enzyme responsible for the interconversion of geometric npositional optical isomers

isomerase

33

enzyme responsible for the joining of two substrates

ligases

34

only example of a ligase

glutathione synthetase

35

two ways to allow product formation

giving more energy
using enzymes

36

energy required to raise all molecules in 1 mole of a compound at a certain temp to the transition state of the peak of energy

activation energy

37

types of specificity

absolute
group
bond
stereoisometric

38

optimum pH for most enzymes

7.0-8.0

39

optimum temp for most enzymes

37 oC

40

at what pH does trypsin work

1.0

41

high temp ________ enzymes

denatures

42

low temp ________ enzymes

inactivates

43

for every _____ increase in temp, rxn is doubled

10 oC

44

this shows the relationship betweenvelocity and substrate conc

Michaelis-Menten constant

45

the maximum point in the Michaelis-Menten curve is also the

saturation point

46

the point kung saan no matter gaano kadaming enzyme ang ilagay there is no more reaksyon na mangyayari

saturation point

jk di kosure kung ganyan ba un

47

types of inhibition

competitive
noncompetitive
uncompetitive

48

inhibitor binds direly to active site, reversible

competitive

49

inhibitor binds to a site other than thrpe active site

noncompetitive

50

when is noncompetitive inhibition irresversible

if damage is brought to the catalytic site

51

inhibitor binds to ES complex itself

uncompetitive

52

increased substrate in uncompetitive inhibition would _____ inhibition

worsen

53

the enzyme combines with only one substrate

absolute specificity

54

enzyme combines with all substrates contain a particular chemical group

group specific

55

enzymes combines to substrates with certain chemical bonds

bond specificity

56

enzymes that predominantly combine with only one optical isomer of a certain compound

stereoisometric specificity

57

the rxn rate is directly proportional to substrate conc.

first order kinetics

58

how is enzyme activity measured? thru:

increase in product formation
decrease in substrate formation(conc ata hindi form)
decrease in coenzyme formation
increase in conc of altered shitshit

59

amount of enzyme that will catalyze the rxn if 1 micromole of substrate per minute under specified condition enzyme activity

IU (kung anuman un)

60

two methods of enzyme activity measurement

fixed time/endpoint
continuous monitoring/kinetic assay

61

how many times is absorbance read in fixed time/endpoint

once

62

what are the major enzymes

TMTM

63

minor enzymes

OCT
POD
GOD
ALS
LAP

64

the recommended (?) name of creatine kinase

ATP:creatine-N-phosphotransferase

65

size of CK

82000 da

66

CK is associated mainly with _______ generation

ATP

67

major tissue sources of CK

skel muscle
heart
brain

68

minor tissue sources of CK
LLPPS PG BTUK

lung
liver
pancreas
prostate
spleen
placenta
GIT
bladder
thyroid
uterus
kidney

69

isoenzyme of CK

CK-MB
CK-MM
CK-BB

70

which CK isoenzyme is fastest toward anode

CK-BB

71

most electronegative CK isoenzyme

CK-BB

72

isoenzyme rarely seen in serum, mainly found in brain

CK-BB

73

least concentration among the CK isoenzymes

CK-BB

74

which CK isoenzyme is a hybrid

CK-MB

75

CK isoenzyme found mainly in the heart

CK-MB

76

CK isoenzyme found mainly in the skeletal muscle

CK-MM

77

normal CK-MB conc in total CK

<6%

78

two atypical isoenzyme of CK

mitochondrial CK
macro CK

79

where does mitochondrial CK migrate

before CK-MM (before origin)

80

CK isoenzyme indicating severe illness

mitochondrial CK

81

CK detected in cases of malignant tumor and cardiac abnormality

mitochondrial CK

82

where does ,acro CK migrate to

between MM and MB

83

this isoenzyme is CK-MM complexed with IgG, some IgA or lipoprotein

macro CK

84

age-sex related isoenzyme of CK

macro CK

85

normal conc. of macro CK

.8-1.6%

86

methods of CK isoenzyme measurement

electrophoresis
ion exchange chromatography
immunoassays
double antibody inhibition

87

what is visualized in electrophoresis of CK that is cathodal to CK-MM

AK (kung ano man yan)

88

immunoassay of CK isoenzymes use antibodies against ____________

H and B subunit

89

methods of CK det

Tanzer-Gilvarg
Oliver Rosalki

90

optimum pH of Tanzer Gilvarg

9.0

91

CK det method coupled w/ PK-LD-NADH system

Tanzer Gilvarg

92

forward type of CK det method

Tanzer Gilvarg

93

optimum pH of Oliver Rosalki

6.8

94

Ck det method coupled w/ HK-G6PD-NADP system

Oliver Rosalki

95

which is faster? Tanzer Gilvarg or Oliver Rosalki?

Oliver Rosalki

96

ref range of CK in males

15-160 U/L

97

CK-MB conc of >6% indicates

myocardial infarction

98

ref range of CK in females

15-130 U/L

99

instability of CK is resolved with

sulfhydryl compounds

100

example of sulfhydryl compounds

dithiothreitol
thioglycerol

101

does light inactivate CK

yes

102

higher CK values in men are attributed to incresed

muscle mass

103

enzyme responsible for interconversion of lactic and pyruvic acid

lactate dehydrogenase

104

how does LD work

transfer H+ using coenzyme NAD+

105

major tissue source of LD

heart
liver
skel muscle
erythrocytes

106

minor tissue sources of LD

lung
smooth muscle

107

diagnostic significance of LD

cardiac
hepatic
skel disease
renal
pernicious anemia

108

isoenzymes of LD

LD1 - LD6

109

fastest LD isoenzyme

LD1

110

highest conc among LD isoenzyme

LD2

111

highest affinity to anode LD isoenzyme

LD1

112

an LD idornzyme that is a bad prognosis and indicates impending death

LD6

113

order of LD isoenzymes most con to lowest conc

2 > 3 > 1 > 4 > 5

114

an atypical LD isoenzyme

macro LD

115

found between LD3 and LD4

macro LD

116

LD1 conc higher than LD2 indicates

myocardial infection

117

highest affinity LD isoenzyme to anode

LD1

118

methods for LD measurement

Wacker
Wroblewski La Due

119

endpoint of Wacker method

blue purple color

120

mol weight of LD

128000 da

121

LD6 is called

alcohol dehydrogenase

122

which LD measurement methd is forward

Wacker

123

by how many tomes is Wroblewski La Due faster than Wacker

3x

124

other name for AST

serum glutamic oxaloacetatic transaminase

125

major tissue sources of AST

cardiac muscle
skel muscle
liver

126

minor tissue sources of AST

kidney
pancreas
RBCs

127

methods for AST det

Reitman-Frankel
coupling with diazonium salts

128

mechanism of Reitman-Feankel

ketoacids is reacted to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)

129

product of Reitman-Frankel

ketoacid hydrazones

130

falsely decreases AST level

mercury
cyanide
fluoride

131

example of liver diseases

viral hepatitis
cirrhosis

132

is AST useful in diagnosis of AMI

hindi eh

133

example of skeletal muscle disorder

muscular dystrophies

134

the optimum pH for Karmen method

7.3-7.8

135

absorbance of AST Karmen method

340nm

136

AST activity is stable in serum for ______ days at ref temp

3-4 days

137

catalyzes transfer of an amino group from alanine to alpha ketoglutarate wih the formation of glutamate and pyruvate

alanine aminotransferase

138

old term for ALT

serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

139

major tissue source of ALT

liver
cardiac tissue

140

diagnostic significance of ALT

hepatic parenchymal disease
AMI or heart failure
IM
muscular dystrophy

141

most labile LD isoenzyme

LD5

142

LD activity in serum is _______

unstable

143

how is sample for LD stored

25 oC

144

gaano katagal dapat matest ang LD

within 48hrs

145

gaano katagal dapat matest ang LD isoenzyme

24hrs

146

ref range of LD

125-220 U/L

147

half life of ALT

24hrs

148

indicator enzyme for ALT assay

LD

149

absorbance for ALT

340nm

150

methods for ALT measurement

Karmen
Reitman
coupling w/ diazonium salt

151

unaffected by hemolysis

ALT

152

stability of ALT

3-4days at 4 oC

153

ref range for ALT

6-37 U/L

154

catalyzes hydrolysis of various phosphomonoesters at an alkaline pH

alkaline phosphatase

155

coenzyme for ALP

pyridoxal phosphate

156

activator for ALP

Mn
Mg

157

optimal pH for ALP

9.0-10.0

158

major tissue source of ALP

intestine
liver
bone
spleen
placenta
kidney

159

ALP isoenzymes

liver ALP
bone ALP
placenta ALP
intestinal ALP

160

diagnostic significance of ALP

hepatobiliary
bone disorders

161

in bone disorders, there is elevation in ALP when ____ are involved

osteoblast

162

example of bone disorder where ALP is elevated

Paget's disease

163

which ALP isoenzyme migrates the fastest

liver ALP

164

liver is further divided into

major liver band
fast or alpha 1

165

who are most likely to possess intestine ALP

blood type B and O
secretors

166

ALP isoenzyme differentiation

electrophoresis
heat stability
chemical inhibition

167

order of ALP isoenzymes in electrophoresis

fast > major > Regan Nagao > bone > placenta > intestinal

168

which ALP isoenzyme resust denaturation at 65 oC for 30 minutes

placental ALP

169

atypical ALP isoenzyme

Regan Nagao

170

other name for Regan Nagao

carcinoplacental ALP

171

ectopic product of an enzyme by malignant tissue

Regan isoenzyme

172

may be considered a variant of Regan isoenzyme

Nagao

173

what inhibits Nagao

L-leucine

174

which best inhibits intestinal and placentaL ALP

phenylalanine

175

detected in metastatic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

Nagao

176

mechanism of Bowers McComb (ALP)

p-nitrophenylphosphate -> p-nitrophenol + phosphate ion

177

absorbance sa Bowers McComb

405nm

178

high fat meals _______ ALP

increase by 25%

179

ref range of ALP

30-90 U/L

180

optimal pH for ACP

5.0

181

tests for ALP

Bodansky
King-Armstrong or Cutman Gutman
Bessey-Lowry-Brock
Hudson
Babson Reed
Bowers McComb
Sinowara Jones Reinhart

182

basic difference in ALP and ACP

pH

183

major tissue source of ACP

prostate

184

minor source of ACP

bone
liver
spleen
kidney
erythrocytes
platelets

185

diagnostic significance of ACP

hyperplasia of prostate
rape cases
bone disease
heart cancer

prostatic carcinoma
metastatic carcinoma

186

most specific substrate for prostatic ACP

thymolphthalein monophosphate

187

chemical inhibition of prostatic ACP usually uses ____ as inhibitor

tartrate

188

formula for pACP

total ACP - ACP after tartrate inhibition

189

PSA stands for

prostate-specific antibody

190

inhibitor for non-pACP

copper

191

serum activity _____ within _______ if the sample is left at rm tmp unpreserved

decrease; 1-2hrs

192

ref range for ACP

0-35 ng/mL

193

upon clotting, serum for ACP det must be

separated immediately