Ch. 13: Intro to CNS (Vickroy) Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Ch. 13: Intro to CNS (Vickroy) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 13: Intro to CNS (Vickroy) Deck (49):
1

tranquilizer

produces a calming effect at low doses and sedation at higher doses. Patient is relaxed, reluctant to move, awake, and unconcerned with surroundings (.e. ace, diazepam)

2

sedative

depresses most behaviors and diminishes excitability WITHOUT producing sleep. Patient can be aroused with sufficient stimuli (i.e. phenobarb, xylazine)

3

hypnotic

produces strong behavioral depression and promotes state of light sleep from which the animal can be aroused

4

Narcotic

produces a deeper state of sleep from which an animal CANNOT be easily aroused (i.e. morphine)

5

anesthetic**

produces deep sleep with a loss of sensation. (ex. halothane, ketamine, propofol)

6

For nearly all classes of CNS depressants, the level of CNS depression is dose-dependent and synergistic with other CNS depressants**

:)

7

Can you achieve anesthesia with benzodiazepines?

No (very difficult)

8

4 main excitatory CNS transmitters

Ach, DA, NE/EP

9

3 main inhibitory CNS transmitters

Adenosine (Ado), GABA, serotonin (5-HT)

10

Rank CNS stimulants in increasing order of CNS activity

analeptics < pscychomotor stimulants < convulsants

11

Rank CNS depressants in increasing order of CNS activity

anesthetics < narcotics < hypnotics < sedatives < tranquilizers

12

T/F: Benzos do not produce analgesia*

T

13

2 distinct pathways to depress CNS function**

1) antagonism of excitatory NT glutamate (via blockage of NMDA receptors)
2) agonism of inhibitory NT GABA (by enhancing GABA receptors)

14

What drug uses antagonism of excitatory NT glutamate via blockage of NMDA receptors as its pathway to depress CNS function?

ketamine

15

Is ketamine a barbiturate-type agent?

no

16

parenteral

Administered by some means other than oral or rectal intake, particularly intravenously or by injection.

17

How does diazepam work?*

enhances actions of the inhibitory NT GABA on GABA receptors, which opens Cl channels, makes cell less excitable, and thereby depresses CNS function

18

Why is ketamine commonly coupled with diazepam?

synergistic effect for more adequate CNS depression. Allows you to use drugs at lower doses to reach desired effect and avoid negative side effects

19

Elements of BBB that stop drugs from passing

-very tight junctions in cerebral blood vessels
-pinocytotic vessels to capture drugs that do manage to diffuse across endothelial cells
-astrocytic foot processes surround capillaries

20

Does phenylephrine normally cross BBB?

No

21

T/F: drugs w/n the same therapeutic group can exhibit marked differences in their abilities to cross the BBB

T

22

T/F: disease patterns or genetic dysfuction can affect BBB permeability

T (i.e. hypertonic solutions, ivermectins in collies, encephalitis)

23

ivermectins in collies

can cross BBB because they lack normal MDR-1 gene that codes for P-glycoprotein, which carries drugs back across BBB that leaked through

24

glutamate is pro-stimulatory or pro-inhibitory?

pro-stimulatory. Blocked by ketamine.

25

serotonergic agents primarily used for:

tx of behavioral disorders

26

6 CNS monoamines

-Ach
-EP
-NE
-DA (only one that acts almost entirely within CNS)
-histamine
-serotonin

27

4 rep. examples of amino acids & derivates

-aspartate
-glycine
-GABA*
-glutamate*

28

6 rep. ex. of neuropeptides

-ACTH
-endorphins
-somatostatin
-aldosterone
-enkephalins
-TRH

29

Do monoamines cross BBB?

NO

30

What does DA control?

motor function, sleep/wake cycle. It is a catecholamine like NE,EP

31

Primary elim. of Ach

AChE

32

Primary elim. of DA, EP, NE

Catecholamine (CA) uptake, monoamine oxidases (MAO)

33

primary elim. of serotonin

serotonin (5-HT) transporters, MAO

34

biosynthetic precursor of DA, NE, EP

tyrosine

35

biosynthetic precursor of serotonin

tryptophan

36

How do synthesis, release, and elim. mechs. of monoamines in the CNS compare to in the periphery?

identical

37

CNS catecholamines are excitatory/inhibitory for most brain functions

excitatory

38

are dopamine receptors abundant or scarce?

abundant

39

drugs that inhibit CNS CA fx tend to stimulate/depress CNS fx

depress

40

Acepromazine mech.

DA antagonist. Produces CNS depression (sedative/tranquilizer)

41

xylazine mech.

alpha-2 agonist. Sedative/analgesic

42

how do alpha-2 agonists depress CNS?*

alpha-2 receptors on presynaptic neurons sense when there is too much NE (which is stimulatory) and shut down NE release. Alpha-2 agonists encourage this process so that NE is released even less, resulting in net CNS depression

43

Name 6 alpha-2 agonists

xylazine
detomidine
medetomidine
dexmedetomidine
romifidine
clonidine

44

serotonin functions

regulations of mood, appetite, sleep/wake cycles, sensory perception.etc

45

T/F: there are a lot of different 5-HT receptors

T

46

why don't use serotonergic agents with MAO inhibitors?

may produce serotonin syndrome that can lead to coma and death

47

major inhibitory aa transmitter in the CNS*

GABA

48

What kind of drugs mimic or enhance GABA function?

barbiturates, benzos, propofol

49

Major excitatory aa transmitters of CNS?

glutamate and aspartate.