Ch.21: Vasodilators (Swift) Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Ch.21: Vasodilators (Swift) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.21: Vasodilators (Swift) Deck (26):
1

stroke volume

volume of blood/heart beat

2

cardiac output =

volume of blood/min. CO = SV x HR

3

pre-load

volume of blood/end-diastole

4

after-load

resistance of eject blood

5

only clinically relevant venodilator

nitrates

6

How do nitrates venodilate?

form NO and reduce Ca influx into the cell

7

nitrates have long/short half-lives

short (rapidly converted to NO)

8

name 2 nitrates

nitroglycerin
sodium nitroprusside

9

chars. of nitroglycerin

-explosive!
-administered topically or IV
-questionable effect

10

chars. of nitroprusside

-balanced vasodilator (venous and arterial)
-decreases systemic BP
-tx CHF
-given at CRI
-tolerance develops

11

side effects of nitrates

-hypotension
-rebound hypertension when discontinued
-cyanide poisoning w/ nitroprusside

12

name 3 arteriodilators

-nitroprusside
-amlodipine
-hydralazine

13

mech. of arteriodilators

-act directly on arterioles to decrease afterload to decrease BP and improve CO

14

chars. of hydralazine

-an arteriodilator
-decreases cGMP
-rapid onset of action
-only used to tx CHF if refractory to conventional meds
-causes hypotension if dose high

15

How do Ca channel blockers work?

block Ca channels, which slows pacemaker current --> vasodilation, decreased contractility

16

lusitropy

myocardial relaxation

17

inotropy

myocardial contraction

18

positive chronotropy

increase HR

19

4 effects of Ca channel blockers

-negative inotropy (less contraction)
-arteriodilation
-negative chronotropy (dec. HR)
-positive lusitropy (more relaxation)

20

sildenafil use

tx pulmonary hypertension. Lowers PA pressure and increases CO

21

renin converts:

angiotensinogen into angiotensin

22

action of angiotensin

vasoconstriction, inc. BP, inc. aldosterone release, growth

23

bradykinin is pro-vasodilation or constriction?

dilation

24

All patients with CHF should receive ___ to blunt negative effects of the RAAS

ACE inhibitor

25

enalapril

-an ACE inhibitor/pro-drug
-renally excreted

26

side effects of ACE inhibitors

-anorexia, v/d
-hyperkalemia due to dec. aldosterone
-renal injury/azotemia
-cough