Ch 14. Final Osmoregulatory Organs (Book) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 14. Final Osmoregulatory Organs (Book) Deck (79)
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1

apical surface of an epithelial cell

continuous with the external world (ex. sea, gut lumen, kidney tubule lumen)

aka. mucosal or laminal surface

2

basal surface

faces an internal compartment with extracellular fluid

aka. serosal surface

3

Na/K ATPase

3 Na+ out

2 K+ in

maintain -70mV, uses ATP

basolateral surface...type of P-ATPase

4

3 classes of ion-motive ATPase pumps

F-ATP synthase

V-ATPase

P-ATPase

5

F-ATP synthase

drive ATP synthesis in mitochondria

6

V-ATPase

vacuolar type

hydrolyze ATP to make an electrochemical gradient

7

P-ATPase

include Na/K

Ca pump of muscle contraction

H+/K+ pump in the stomach

8

net movement of chloride across the cell membrane generates a ______________ membrane potential that can...

transepithelial

move sodium against its gradient paracellularly (btw cells)

9

can Na/K and proton ATPases be modified by hormones?

yes

ex. both increased activity by aldosterone

10

kidney anatomy

outer cortex and inner medulla

renal pelvis turns into the ureter --> bladder

11

urine contains water and other by-products of _________, like...

metabolism

urea, NaCl, KCl, phosphates

12

the function of the kidneys is to maintain...

more or less constant body composition

ex. composition of urine reflects water taken in and composition of food ingested

13

actual volume of urine produced is made of...

water ingested plus water made through metabolism

minus evaporative water loss and sweating and pooping

14

how is sensation of fullness via bladder produced

as bladder is stretched by filling, stretch receptors in the wall generate nerve impulses carried by sensory neurons

15

functional unit of the kidney is the ______ which empty into the __________ _____

nephron, collecting ducts

16

nephron structure

long tube structure closed and widened at the beginning (Bowman's capsule) and opened at the distal end --> collecting duct

17

bowman's capsule

contains a cluster of capillaries called the glomerulus where urine formation begins

18

3 regions of a nephron

proximal nephron

loop of Henle

distal nephron

19

proximal nephron

contains Bowman's capsule and proximal tubule

20

loop of Henle structure

has a descending limb and ascending limb

21

distal nephron

a distal tubule that enters into a collecting duct

22

two types of nephron

juxtamedullary

cortical

23

juxtamedullary nephron

has glomeruli in the inner cortex

long loops of Henle plunge far into the medulla

24

cortical nephrons

glomeruli in the outer cortex

short loops of Henle that extend a short distance into the medulla

25

without a loop of Henle you can't make

concentrated urine

26

path of blood from renal artery

renal artery --> afferent arteriole --> glomerular capillaries of bowman's capsule --> efferent arteriole --> vasa recta around loops of Henle

27

3 main processes that contribute to urine composition

filtering blood plasma into an ultrafiltrate in the lumen of Bowman's capsule

tubular reabsorption of 99% of water and salts form ultrafiltrate (leaves behind waste products like urea)

tubular secretion of substances via active transport

28

what does glomerular filtrate contain

all parts of blood except RBC

nearly all blood proteins

29

the process of ultrafiltration in the glomerulus depends on what

net pressure gradient (passive)

from hydrostatic pressure difference across 2 compartments

and colloid osmotic pressure

30

fenestrated capillaries in glomerulus

pores that are 100x more permeable than normal ones