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2 big challenges

need O2

get rid of metabolic wastes


are marine inverts conformers or regulators


less energy expenditure

mirror osmolarity of seawater using osmolytes


sharks use what osmolytes

TMAO and urea to inc. osmolarity of cells

need less NaCl


how does rectal gland work

Na/K ATPase basal surface + Na/2Cl/K cotransport

Cl channel in apical --> Cl- out for electrochem gradient

K channel basal --> K+ out

Na into lumen driven by electochem gradient of Cl- out


metabolic wastes balance btw water loss and energy costs

most toxic + water needed ammonia --> urea --> uric acid

most energy uric acid --> urea --> ammonia


pH of urine and why isnt it lower

6 b/c H+ secreted into it + small amount of bicarb

buffers keep pH from being too low


mealworm tenebrio system

countercurrent system makes hypertonic urine

active KCl out of rectum and water follows


evaporative water loss things in insects

cuticle waxy layer keeps water in, but heat melts it

trachea open and close spiracles

breathing air in warmed and humidified, out is cooled and water condenses