Exam 3: Ch 13 Notes Flashcards Preview

Animal Physiology > Exam 3: Ch 13 Notes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3: Ch 13 Notes Deck (114)
Loading flashcards...
1

gas exchange challenges

SA:Vol ratio

need O2 for cellular respiration

need to dump O2 from cellular respiration

2

does an amoeba need gills?

no, it has a high surface area to volume ratio

3

atmosphere makeup

78% N2

21% O2

9% other

0.3% CO2

4

gas exchange must meet ______ specific demands

tissue specific demands

5

problem... where do you live?

sea level

altitude

in water

6

in the water, O2 is only available...

1/30th of atmosphere

dissolves from atmosphere

produced from photosynthesis

7

water in diff salinities/temps

fresh

salt @ 30 degrees 4.34 ml O2/L

salt @ 15 degrees 5.75 ml O2/L

8

water has layers

salinity and temp restrict O2 movement

less diffusion

9

how to max diffusion

large surface area

minimize distance to diffuse

maximize concentration gradient --> remove boundary layers w/ blood flow

10

hemoglobin increases

carrying capacity of blood

11

how do we increase carrying capacity more

RBC increase production of EPO

plasma

doping: 1 pt of blood --> spin --> give RBC back "treacle" viscous blood

12

ice fish don't have a _______ pigment

respiratory

low temp --> more O2 dissolved

temp conformer so low temp = low metabolic rate (less O2 demand)

increased blood volume and cardiac output

13

hemoglobin structure

2 dimers a,b a2,b2 4 subunits each binds O2

14

Hb + O2 vs. Hb by itself

oxyhemoglobin; deoxyhemoglobin

15

Hb is better at binding..

carbon monoxide 200x

displaces O2

no detection system

16

sickle cell anemia

Hb clumps, distorts RBC

lower O2 carrying capacity

RBC get stuck in capillaries

resistance to malaria

17

myoglobin

muscles 1 subunit

no subunit cooperativity

not as well tunes

18

Hb + O2 cooperative binding

sigmoidal curve

good at binding O2 in regions w/ high pO2

bad at binding O2 in regions w/ low pO2

this allows Hb to release O2 in tissues w/ low O2

19

how is Hb tuned

more release at partial pressures that are experienced in metabolic tissues

20

Bohr effect

more acidic conditions = less O2 bound to Hb

ex. 30mmHg pH 7.4 = 30% saturation

pH 7.2 = 15% saturation

21

what conditions wound you find in exercising muscle

more acidic

less O2, more CO2

higher temp

all cause Hb to release more O2

22

Hb has a changing affinity for O2 depending on

conditions of surrounding tissue

23

developmental changes of Hb

different Hbs

fetal Hb binds O2 better, better transport of maternal O2 --> fetus

24

CO2 transport

oxygenated blood has less CO2 carrying capacity

deoxygenated blood has more CO2 carrying capacity

25

CO2 transport in peruvian, tibetan, and kenyan people

lower CO2 binding Hb

increased RBC, Hb, NO

more heart capacity

26

andean populations

increased RBC + Hb

many unsaturated RBC

viscous blood

27

himalayan population consists of which two groups

tibet and nepal

28

himalayan populations CO2 transport

O2 sat lower than sea level

high levels of NO (240x)

vasodilator, blood vessel relaxation in lungs (wider for blood flow)

29

himalayan populations breathe...

deeper and faster

EPAS1 - monitors O2 levels

prevent overproduction of RBC

30

kenyan populations

increased rate of O2 transfer from alveoli to blood

Hb levels and O2 saturation same as sea level