Flashcards in CH 17 Respiratory Emergencies Deck (32):
High-pitched sounds that will seem almost musical in nature, the sound is created by air moving through narrowed air passages in the lungs. Common in asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive lung disease) ex emphysema and bronchitis. Most commonly heard during expiration.
Fine crackling or bubbling sound heard on inspiration. The sound is caused by fluid in the alveoli or by the opening of closed alveoli. AKA rales.
Lower pitched sound that resemble snoring or rattling. They are caused by secretions in larger airways as migth be seen with pneumonia or bronchitis or when materials are aspirated (breathed) into the lungs.
The difference between____ and ______ is not always obvious but ___ is generally louder.
Crackles, Rhonchi, Rhonchi
High pitched sound heard on inspiration. It is an upper airway sound indicating partial obstruction of the trachea or larynx. Can be heard without a stethoscope.
Sounds of lower lobes in chest can be
Present throughout the lungs
Examples of COPD
Emphysema, Chronic. Bronchitis , black lungs.
Some of the common causes of COPD?
Chemicals, air pollutants, repeated infections, cigarette, respiratory tract irritants
What causes Bronchioles lining is inflamed and excess mucus is formed. The cells in bronchioles that normally clear away accumulation of mucus are not able to do so because cilia have been damage or destroyed.
The walls of the alveoli break down, generally reducing the surface area for respiratory exchange. The lungs begging to lose elasticity. Therefore stale air laden with CO2 to be trapped in the lungs. Reducing the effectiveness of normal breathing efforts
Chronic illness that has episodic exacerbation or flares, can be life threatening. Maybe cause by insect stings, air pollutants, infection, strenuous exercise, or emotional stress.
What happens during an asthma attack?
The small bronchioles that lead air to sacs of the lungs become narrowed because of contractions of the muscle that make up the airway and theres over production of thick mucus. Combine effects may cause passage to close down.
What is CHF stand for ?
Congestive Heart Failure
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs is ____. Typically occurs because left side of the heart has been damaged, often my myocardial infarction or chronic hypertension.Left side of the heart receives blood from lungs, not able to pump blood out because leads to pressure build up and blood going back to lungs.
What are possible treatments for Pulmonary Edema?
High concentrated oxygen by mask unless patient is in need to ventilate, have patients legs in dependent position (hanging down) , CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)
Why would we use CPAP on a patient with pulmonary edema?
It can physically push the fluid back out of the lungs and into the capillaries where it belongs.
List some of the causes of Pulmonary Edema?
Heart Failure, Heart Attack, Low atmospheric pressure of high altitudes
An infection of one or both lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. People with COPD or other chronic health problems are more likely to get it
Person showing these symptoms coughing mucus (green, yellow, possibly blood), fever, chest pain, and severe chills. Maybe shortness of breath, sharp chest pain or pleuritic ( worse in inhalation) headache, pale, sweaty skin. Fatigue and confusion , may hear crackles.
Should we CPAP on patients with Pneumonia
Yes, if it's do to bacteria the patients will receive antibiotics.
Lung collapses without any injury or obvious cause
What causes spontaneous pneumothorax ?
Maybe a rupture of bleb ( small section of lung that is weak), once it ruptures the lungs collapses and air leaks into the thorax .
Who is at higher risk for Spontaneous pneumothorax?
Tall thin (greater risk of having a weak spot) people, smokers (destroy lung tissues)
What are some possible symptoms of a person with spontaneous pneumothorax ?
Sharp, pleuritic chest pain, and shortness of breath and are mild when it's small but if the are is larger patients will tire easily, breath fast , exhibit cyanosis, tachycardia.
What can we do for a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax?
Administer O2 do not use CPAP, maybe small catheter or larger plastic chest tube between the ribs.
When something that is not blood (blood clot, air, or fat) tries to go through these blood vessels (lung ones) it gets stuck and blocks artery in the lungs.
Pulmonary Embolism (dangerous condition)
What is the most common example of pulmonary embolism?
A blood clot that starts in a vein, vein from leg or pelvis usually, which is dangerous type of clot and is known as DVT (deep vein thrombosis).
What is the most common reason DTV occurs?
The Patient has cancer because blood is more prone to clotting. Lying down or sitting in one position for an extended period can also make blood more prone to clot.
A significant amount of air introduce to a vein can cause great harm and possibly death also _____
Block pulmonary arteries
How can fat cause Pulmonary Embolism?
Fat from the marrow of a fractured bone