Hematologic And Renal Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematologic And Renal Emergencies Deck (37):
1

Solid components of blood are created in

The bone marrow that forms specialized core of many of the body's bones.

2

RBC's

Majority of cells in circulation, give blood red color, have specialized molecules called Hemoglobin that bind to oxygen and deliver oxygen to cells

3

WBC's

Critically respond to infection and are major mediators of the body's immune response

4

Platelets

Crucial in formation of clots
Clumping (aggregation) most rapid response to stop bleeding at injured site

5

What prevents aggregation of platelets

Aspirin, given to acute heart attack patient or potential heart attack

6

Situation of unwanted clumping of platelets not desirable?

When plaque in a coronary artery ruptures because it can cause a clot that then completely blocks the coronary artery leading to heart attack ( myocardial infarction )

7

Plasma

Liquid that blood and platelets are suspended, contains dissolved nutrients and crucial proteins like clotting factors

8

Two components in blood responsible for clotting

Platelets and clotting factors

describe Clotting cascades

9

Coagulopathy

Abnormal clotting of blood

10

When can Coagulopathy occur

When the body forms clots too readily or when the patient clots too slow = uncontrolled bleeding

11

Too slow coagulopathies

Are due to abnormally slow clotting by problems with clotting cascade a result of too few platelets or platelets that are not functioning correctly.

12

Diseases prone to poor clotting

Advance Liver Disease (clotting fractures made in liver)
Ex) Cirrhosis - not make adequate clotting factors

Genetic

Ex) Hemophiliacs - Von willebrand Disease most common inherited

Platelets functional defective allowing excessive bleeding

13

Medical conditions that worsen disease

Risk heart attack or strokes or abnormal cardiac rhythm like atrial fibrillation

Giving blood thinners

14

Blood thinners med

Coumadin , pradaxa, eliquis, xarelto, Lovenox

Inhibit certain clotting factors

15

Manage patients with potential coagulopathies past medical history

History of Dysrhymia called atrial fibrillation are common blood thinners

Ask trauma patients if taking blood thinners

16

Anemia

Lack of a normal number of red blood cells in circulation

17

Patients becomes anemic

Acute anemia or Chronic Anemia

18

Acute Anemia

May result of trauma or sudden massive bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract

Patients may show shock (hypo perfusion) rapid pulse rate cool, clammy, skin and eventually hypotension

19

Chronic Anemia

Occurs overtime possibly recurrent heavy menstraul periods, slow gastrointestinal blood loss, or diseases affect bone marrow or structure of hemoglobin molecule

Appear more pale complain fatigue and shortness of breath with exertion

Prolonged chronic anemia may show shock

Best way to asses color conjunctiva on the lower eyelid

20

Sickle cell anemia (SCA)

Inherited, genetic defect in the hemoglobin that results in an abnormal structure of red blood cells

Lose ability to have normal shape compressibility

Most common in African Descent

Do not survive in circulation compare to normal RBC's

21

Complication of SCA

Slugging abnormally shape red blood cells causes blockage within the body's small blood vessels

Destruction of the spleen

Sickle cell pain crisis

Acute chest syndrome

Priapism

Stroke

Jaundice

22

Destruction of Spleen

Spleen filters blood, block by abnormal SBC's because spleen is important in fighting infection, it's loss places patients with SCA at higher risk for severe, life threatening infections.

23

Sickle cell pain crisis

Sickle cell crisis is caused by sluggish of sickles RBC's in capillaries, which result in sever pain in the arms, legs, chest and or abdomen.

24

Acute chest syndrome

Characterized by shortness of breath and chest pain associated with hypoxia when blood vessels in the lungs become blocked.

25

Priapism

Painful prolonged erections in males occurs because smudging RBC's prevent normal blood drainage from erect penis

26

Stroke

Occurs slugging RBCs block blood vessels that supply the brain

27

Jaundice

The liver becomes overwhelmed by the breakdown in red blood cells resulting in yellowish pigmentation of the body tissues

28

Renal system

Two kidneys, two ureters and single urethra

29

Kidneys

Filtration of the blood and the removal of certain waste products excessive salts and excessive fluids from the body

Dehydration retain needed fluid

30

Urinary tract Infections (UTIs)

Most common afflicts renal urinary systems; caused by bacteria most are limited to bladder

Painful and frequent urination

If untreated infection in bladder can ascend up the ureter and into kidney called pyelonephritis

31

Urinary infection can be serious life threats

If bacteria spread into bloodstream

32

Kidney stones

Painful and common related to renal system

Stones are made of calcium formed within the kidney

33

Kidney stones pain

Radiates to groin area when stone descends

Associated with Nausea and vomiting

34

Loss ability to urinate normally

Obstruction of the outflow from the bladder

Ex) tumor or large prostate or neurological disorder leads to lose initiate normal urine flow

35

Urinary catheter

Drain their urine, place in urethra, long term or short term

Urinary tract infections and local trauma two most commons= complications with urinary catheter

36

Renal Failure

Most serous disease of the kidneys

Kidneys lose ability to adequately filter the blood and remove toxins an excess fluid from body

37

Critical to patients health and survival

Control bleeding by clotting
Delivery of Oxygen to cells
Remove Co2 from cells
Removal and delivery of waste products to organs that provide filtration