Flashcards in Ch. 17 - The Respiratory System Deck (64):
The two portions of the respiratory system are the _______ and the _______.
conducting portion; respiratory portion
Tubes/airways of the respiratory system
Strictly function in conducting air
No gas exchange
Function in gas exchange
What is the main tissue type of the respiratory system?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
The cilia of respiratory epithelium functions to do what?
Move mucus up towards the throat, away from the lungs, where it gets swallowed
Why is swallowing mucus beneficial?
The low pH of the stomach kills bacteria
Goblet cells interspersed with respiratory epithelia produce _______.
Mucus produced by goblet cells is very _______ and functions to _______ and _______.
viscous; keep tissues moist; trap dust and bacteria
Name the 5 cell types of the respiratory system.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Stem cells of the respiratory system
Small sensory cells with microvilli
Probably function to sense the environment
Small cells with granules containing serotonin, catecholamines, and calcitonin
What are the components of the conducting portion?
Nose (nasal cavities)
Larynx (voice box)
Primary bronchi (2)
What are the components of the respiratory portion?
As air passes through the conducting system, it is _______, _______, and _______ before it hits the alveoli.
warmed; filtered; humidified
Two nasal cavities (right and left)
Composed of external, dilated vestibule and an internal nasal cavity
Nose hairs that filter out particulate material
Skin of the nose enters the nares partway into the _______ and has _______, _______, and _______.
vestibules; sweat glands; sebaceous glands; vibrissae
Within the vestibule, the epithelium loses its _______ nature and undergoes a transition to typical _______ epithelium before entering the nasal cavities.
keratinized; pseudostratified columnar
The nasal cavities within the skull are separated by the _______.
osseous nasal septum
Three bony projections extending from each lateral wall of the nasal cavities
Superior, middle, and inferior conchae
The middle and inferior conchae are covered with _______ epithelium.
The roof of the nasal cavities and the superior conchae are covered with specialized _______ epithelium.
Thick, pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing three major cell types
Contain chemoreceptors for sense of smell
Bipolar neurons present throughout olfactory epithelium
Apical pole is its dendrite end and has a knoblike swelling with ~12 basal bodies
Cilia emerge from basal bodies (nonmotile) and provide surface area for chemoreceptors
Tall columnar cells with broad, cylindrical apexes found in the olfactory epithelium
Contain microvilli submerged in a fluid layer
Small, spherical, or cone-shaped stem cells near the basal lamina that differentiate into both olfactory neurons and supporting cells
The lamina propria of the olfactory epithelium contains large, serous _______ which produce a constant flow of fluid surrounding the _______ and facilitating access of new odoriferous substances.
olfactory glands (of Bowman); olfactory cells
The lamina propria of the conchae (turbinates) contains _______.
Plexus of small veins in the lamina propria of the nasal conchae that alternate swelling on either side (either nasal cavity) every 20-30 min
Swelling causes tissue to become thicker, allowing less air to come through
Guards against excessive desiccation (drying out)
Why it is hard to breathe when you have a cold?
The swell bodies of both nasal cavities swell at the same time, allowing less air to come through
Gland found in the lamina propria of the olfactory epithelium
Has a watery secretion that clears the surface of the epithelium so new odoriferous material can come in
Region in the conchae
May be vestigial in humans
Very prominent in other mammals; used for pheromone detection
Spongy cavity lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Ethmoid air cells (near eyes)
Sphenoid sinuses (near temples)
Contain goblet cells that constantly drain into the nasal fossa (cavity)
The pharynx consists of the _______, _______, _______, and the _______.
nasopharynx; pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil; oropharynx; laryngopharynx
The nasal cavities open up into the _______.
First part of the pharynx located behind the nasal fossa (cavities)
Lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Contains 2 bilateral Eustachian tubes that connect to the middle ear
Eustachian tubes function to do what?
Regulate air pressure
Short passage for air between the pharynx and trachea
Has a rigid wall, reinforced by hyaline and elastic cartilage
Has specialized folds that function for vocalization
What are the hyaline and elastic cartilages of the larynx?
Arytenoid cartilages (paired)
True vocal cords function to _______, while false vocal cords are _______.
make noise; vestibular folds
Cartilaginous structure projecting from the upper rim of the larynx that prevents swallowed food from entering the larynx
Aka Adam's apple
Prominence of the larynx
Fibroelastic tube of the respiratory tract that leads down the mid thorax region where it terminates
Epithelium of mucosal lining is respiratory epithelium with a very thick basement membrane
Contains C-shaped rings of cartilage that keep the tube open
Distinguishing features of the trachea.
Respiratory epithelium of the mucosal lining has a very thick basement membrane
In the lamina propria, hyaline cartilage forms C-shaped rings located at regular intervals that keep the tube of the trachea open
The lamina propria and submucosa of the trachea contain _______.
BALT (bronchial associated lymphoid tissue)
The submucosa of the trachea contains _______ glands.
Does the trachea have a serosa or an adventitia?
Same structure as the trachea
Branch into secondary bronchi
2 on the left side and 3 on the right side
Service the lobes of the lungs
Cartilage is broken up (distinguishing feature)
Tubes of less than 5 mm in diameter
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles
Goblet cells are only found in larger bronchioles
Contain Clara cells
Large, dome-shaped cells found only in the terminal bronchioles
Produce an antioxidant called Clara cell protein (CC16) and lipoprotein that prevents collapsing of bronchiole
There are over _______ alveoli per lung.
The wall of the alveoli are made up of simple epithelium called _______.
Type I pneumocytes
Simple squamous epithelium
Define the wall of the alveoli
Type II pneumocytes
Aka great alveolar cell
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Differentiate late in development under the influence of the stress hormone cortisol produced by the fetus
Each alveolus has a _______ beneath it.
Type II pneumocytes produce _______.
A wetting agent that decreases surface tension and allows the alveoli to expand
Platelet activating factor
Controls secretion of surfactant
_______ roam in the alveoli to clean them of debris.
Macrophages in the lungs and respiratory tract that have grainy particles in their cytoplasm