Ch. 17 - The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 17 - The Respiratory System Deck (64):
1

The two portions of the respiratory system are the _______ and the _______.

conducting portion; respiratory portion

2

Conducting portion

Tubes/airways of the respiratory system
Strictly function in conducting air
No gas exchange

3

Respiratory portion

Alveoli
Function in gas exchange

4

What is the main tissue type of the respiratory system?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

5

The cilia of respiratory epithelium functions to do what?

Move mucus up towards the throat, away from the lungs, where it gets swallowed

6

Why is swallowing mucus beneficial?

The low pH of the stomach kills bacteria

7

Goblet cells interspersed with respiratory epithelia produce _______.

mucus

8

Mucus produced by goblet cells is very _______ and functions to _______ and _______.

viscous; keep tissues moist; trap dust and bacteria

9

Name the 5 cell types of the respiratory system.

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Goblet cells
Basal cells
Brush cells
Granule cells

10

Basal cells

Stem cells of the respiratory system

11

Brush cells

Small sensory cells with microvilli
Probably function to sense the environment

12

Granule cells

Small cells with granules containing serotonin, catecholamines, and calcitonin
Endocrine function

13

What are the components of the conducting portion?

Nose (nasal cavities)
Nasopharynx/pharynx
Larynx (voice box)
Trachea
Primary bronchi (2)
Secondary bronchi
Terminal bronchioles

14

What are the components of the respiratory portion?

Alveoli

15

As air passes through the conducting system, it is _______, _______, and _______ before it hits the alveoli.

warmed; filtered; humidified

16

Nasal cavities

Two nasal cavities (right and left)
Composed of external, dilated vestibule and an internal nasal cavity

17

Nares

Nostrils

18

Vibrissae

Nose hairs that filter out particulate material

19

Skin of the nose enters the nares partway into the _______ and has _______, _______, and _______.

vestibules; sweat glands; sebaceous glands; vibrissae

20

Within the vestibule, the epithelium loses its _______ nature and undergoes a transition to typical _______ epithelium before entering the nasal cavities.

keratinized; pseudostratified columnar

21

The nasal cavities within the skull are separated by the _______.

osseous nasal septum

22

Conchae

Aka turbinates
Three bony projections extending from each lateral wall of the nasal cavities
Superior, middle, and inferior conchae

23

The middle and inferior conchae are covered with _______ epithelium.

respiratory

24

The roof of the nasal cavities and the superior conchae are covered with specialized _______ epithelium.

olfactory

25

Olfactory epithelium

Thick, pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing three major cell types
Olfactory neurons
Supporting cells
Basal cells

Contain chemoreceptors for sense of smell

26

Olfactory neurons

Bipolar neurons present throughout olfactory epithelium
Apical pole is its dendrite end and has a knoblike swelling with ~12 basal bodies
Cilia emerge from basal bodies (nonmotile) and provide surface area for chemoreceptors

27

Supporting cells

Tall columnar cells with broad, cylindrical apexes found in the olfactory epithelium
Contain microvilli submerged in a fluid layer

28

Basal cells

Small, spherical, or cone-shaped stem cells near the basal lamina that differentiate into both olfactory neurons and supporting cells

29

The lamina propria of the olfactory epithelium contains large, serous _______ which produce a constant flow of fluid surrounding the _______ and facilitating access of new odoriferous substances.

olfactory glands (of Bowman); olfactory cells

30

The lamina propria of the conchae (turbinates) contains _______.

swell bodies

31

Swell bodies

Plexus of small veins in the lamina propria of the nasal conchae that alternate swelling on either side (either nasal cavity) every 20-30 min
Swelling causes tissue to become thicker, allowing less air to come through
Guards against excessive desiccation (drying out)

32

Why it is hard to breathe when you have a cold?

The swell bodies of both nasal cavities swell at the same time, allowing less air to come through

33

Olfactory/Bowman's gland

Gland found in the lamina propria of the olfactory epithelium
Has a watery secretion that clears the surface of the epithelium so new odoriferous material can come in

34

VNO

Vomeronasal organ
Region in the conchae
May be vestigial in humans
Very prominent in other mammals; used for pheromone detection

35

Paranasal sinuses

Spongy cavity lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Maxillary sinus
Frontal sinus
Ethmoid air cells (near eyes)
Sphenoid sinuses (near temples)

Contain goblet cells that constantly drain into the nasal fossa (cavity)

36

The pharynx consists of the _______, _______, _______, and the _______.

nasopharynx; pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil; oropharynx; laryngopharynx

37

The nasal cavities open up into the _______.

nasopharynx

38

Nasopharynx

First part of the pharynx located behind the nasal fossa (cavities)
Lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Contains 2 bilateral Eustachian tubes that connect to the middle ear

39

Eustachian tubes function to do what?

Regulate air pressure

40

Larynx

Aka voicebox
Short passage for air between the pharynx and trachea
Has a rigid wall, reinforced by hyaline and elastic cartilage
Has specialized folds that function for vocalization

41

What are the hyaline and elastic cartilages of the larynx?

Thyroid cartilages
Cuneiform cartilages
Corniculate cartilages
Arytenoid cartilages (paired)

42

True vocal cords function to _______, while false vocal cords are _______.

make noise; vestibular folds

43

Epiglottis

Cartilaginous structure projecting from the upper rim of the larynx that prevents swallowed food from entering the larynx

44

Laryngeal prominence

Aka Adam's apple
Prominence of the larynx

45

Trachea

Fibroelastic tube of the respiratory tract that leads down the mid thorax region where it terminates
Epithelium of mucosal lining is respiratory epithelium with a very thick basement membrane
Contains C-shaped rings of cartilage that keep the tube open

46

Distinguishing features of the trachea.

Respiratory epithelium of the mucosal lining has a very thick basement membrane
In the lamina propria, hyaline cartilage forms C-shaped rings located at regular intervals that keep the tube of the trachea open

47

The lamina propria and submucosa of the trachea contain _______.

BALT (bronchial associated lymphoid tissue)

48

The submucosa of the trachea contains _______ glands.

seromucous

49

Does the trachea have a serosa or an adventitia?

Adventitia

50

Primary bronchi

Same structure as the trachea
Branch into secondary bronchi

51

Secondary bronchi

2 on the left side and 3 on the right side
Service the lobes of the lungs
Cartilage is broken up (distinguishing feature)

52

Bronchioles

Tubes of less than 5 mm in diameter
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles
Goblet cells are only found in larger bronchioles
Contain Clara cells

53

Clara cells

Large, dome-shaped cells found only in the terminal bronchioles
Produce an antioxidant called Clara cell protein (CC16) and lipoprotein that prevents collapsing of bronchiole

54

There are over _______ alveoli per lung.

300 million

55

The wall of the alveoli are made up of simple epithelium called _______.

pneumocytes

56

Type I pneumocytes

Simple squamous epithelium
Define the wall of the alveoli

57

Type II pneumocytes

Aka great alveolar cell
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Differentiate late in development under the influence of the stress hormone cortisol produced by the fetus

58

Each alveolus has a _______ beneath it.

capillary bed

59

Type II pneumocytes produce _______.

surfactant

60

Surfactant

A wetting agent that decreases surface tension and allows the alveoli to expand

61

PAF

Platelet activating factor
Controls secretion of surfactant

62

_______ roam in the alveoli to clean them of debris.

Macrophages

63

Dust cells

Macrophages in the lungs and respiratory tract that have grainy particles in their cytoplasm

64

Brush cells detect _______.

air quality