Flashcards in Lymphoid System Deck (58):
Adaptive immune system
Fights off foreign antigen material introduced from the air, ingestion, and breaks in the skin
Consists of lymphocytes and APCs
Innate immune system
Neutrophils - phagocytic
Molecules that guide immune cells
What are the molecules that guide immune cells?
Cytokines and lymphokines
What are the four terms used to describe the inflammatory reaction?
Heat, redness, swelling, and pain
Calor, rubor, tubor, and dolor
Lymphocytes consist of _______ and _______.
B cells; T cells
What are the organs of the lymphoid system that house and develop mature lymphocytes?
Originate from the bm
Independent of the thymus
Found in blood, ECF, lymph
Originate in the bm
Dependent on the thymus for further development
Cell mediated immune response
B cells differentiate into _______ and _______.
plasma cells; memory cells
APCs differentiated from B cells
Have surface receptors
Differentiated from B cells
Has a "memory" that recognizes antigen that has already been introduced to the body
Programmed to act when antigen is present
Immunoglobulins or Abs have 5 categories, called _______, _______, _______, _______, and _______.
IgA; IgD; IgE; IgM; IgG
Produced by many exocrine glands (mucus-producing cells), saliva, and milk
Interacts with mast cells that release histamine a upon interaction with IgE
Activates the complement system
Penetrates placenta and immobilizes fetus
APCs are _______ that are a part of the _______ immunity.
Major histocompatibility complex
A group of proteins on all cells
Each cell takes fragments of its proteins and attaches them go MHC I complex which is used to recognize and distinguish self from non self
Recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells
Consists of APCs and effector cells
Small peptides released by cytotoxic T cells
Attach to infected cells and polymerize, forming perforations in the cell
Causes cell contents to leak out and the cell dies
T cells are divided into _______ and _______.
T helper cells; cytotoxic T cells
T helper cells recognize MHC class _______ protein and function to _______.
II; mobilize B cells
T helper cells have _______ protein and cytotoxic T cells have _______ protein.
HIV is so deadly because it attacks _______ cells, therefore inhibiting _______ and _______ cells, which are responsible for the immune responses.
CD4; B; cytotoxic T
APCs phagocytize foreign material, digest it, and attach it to _______, which tells the immune cells (B and cytotoxic T cells) that it is infected.
Human leukocyte receptor
Comparable to MHC molecules, but in human cells
There are two forms of lymphatic organization, _______ and _______.
diffuse lymphoid tissue; lymphatic nodules
Lymphatic cells are condensed into nodules
What are the lymphoid organs?
Lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus, tonsils. and spleen
Encapsulated, lobate gland found in the mediastinum, anterior to the heart
Begins growing at birth and reaches max at puberty
Guides development of and forms T cells
Produces hormone-like substance called thymosin
As a person ages, the thymus gland shrinks due to _______.
Hormone-like substance produced by the thymus
Directs development of T cells
The thymus gland is composed of a _______ and a _______.
The cortex of the thymus gland is composed of _______.
The medulla of the thymus gland is composed of _______.
few lymphocytes and many thymoepithelial cells (TECs)
What is the distinguishing factor of the medulla of the thymus?
Hassall's corpuscles - clusters of thymoepithelial cells (TECs)
Distinguishing feature of the medulla of the thymus gland
Clusters of TECs that produce cytokines for the differentiation of T cells and the mobilization on lymphocytes
Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
Fund in the lining of GI, urinary, and respiratory tracts
Nodular arrangement of lymphocytes
See an unencapsulated basophilic mass of cells
When lymphocytes are active due to immune stress, it is common to see _______ of the nodule arrangements of these cells.
a lighter-staining center
Lymphoid tissue arranged in encapsulated aggregations of nodules
Line of defense against antigenic material taken in through the mouth
What are the three kinds of tonsils and how many are there of each?
3 kinds: palatine tonsils (2), lingual tonsils (2), and pharyngeal tonsil (1) aka adenoid tonsil
Tonsils found at the back of the throat on either side of the glossopharyngeal arch
Encapsulated aggregation of lymphatic nodules with crypt
Tonsils found at the back of the tongue (dorsal)
Similar arrangement to that of palatine tonsils
Covered with stratified squamous epithelium
Presence of a crypt
Smaller than palatine tonsils
Single, large tonsil of the upper wall of the nasopharynx
Similar arrangement to other tonsils with two exceptions
The covering of the palatine and lingual tonsils are made up of _______ cells?
stratified squamous epithelium
What are the two distinguishing factors of palatine tonsils?
1. Stratified squamous epithelium covering
2. presence of a crypt
What two things about the arrangement of the adenoid makes it different from the other tonsils?
1. Covering is made up of pseudo stratified columnar epithelium instead of stratified squamous epithelium
2. No crypt
Aggregation of lymphocytes forming nodules
Commonly found in the ileum and the gut
Makes contact with the contents of the lumen
Aggregations of lymphatic tissue encapsulated in dense, fibrous CT that function to filter lymph
Two major chains bilaterally from the neck to the groin
What is the major cell type of the lymph nodes?
Lymph goes back to the _______ blood flow in the neck where the _______ come together and it becomes _______ again
venous; subclavian vein and jugular; plasma
Largest lymph organ
Located in the UL quadrant above the stomach
Functions to filter both blood AND lymph
Encapsulated in dense, fibrous CT
Consists of white and red pulp
What is the only lymphatic organ with two functions? What are they?
1. Filter blood
2. Filter lymph
White pulp of the spleen
20% of the spleen
Aka splenic nodule
Made up of lymphocytes
Red pulp of the spleen
Highly vascularized cords of cells
Everything in between the white pulp
Cords of Billroth
Cords of the red pulp of the spleen
Responsible for hemocatheresis - saves reusable parts
Removal of old RBCs